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Kuala Lumpur Structure Plan 2020

Preface

Acknowledgement

1 Introduction

2 International and National Context of Growth

3 Vision and Goals of Kuala Lumpur

4 Economic Base and Population

5 Income and Quality of Life
  5.1 Introduction
  5.2 Existing situation and issue
    5.2.1 Household income
    5.2.2 Other components of quality of life
  5.3 Objective
  5.4 Policy and proposal
    5.4.1 Household income
    5.4.2 Social programme
    5.4.3 Other components of quality of life

6 Land Use and Development Strategy

7 Commerce

8 Tourism

9 Industry

10 Transportation

11 Infrastructure and Utilities

12 Housing

13 Community Facilities

14 Urban Design and Landscape

15 Environment

16 Special Areas

17 Strategic Zone

18 Implementation

Abbreviations

Glossary

FAQ
5.1 Introduction

102. Quality of life encompasses the fulfilment of all human needs such as a satisfactory standard of material life, health, education, security, the satisfaction of living in a clean environment as well as the enjoyment of the aesthetic and the spiritual. In short, it relates to the general well being of the populace. For governments, including a city government like CHKL, the responsibility in bringing about a high quality of life is in ensuring that, inter alia, the necessary infrastructure of utilities and amenities, the institutions of social organisation and governance that permits an acceptable level of individual expression and choice, are in place.
103. For the individual, a prerequisite of a good quality of life is an adequate income, sufficient to permit access to the facilities that the City can provide. These initiatives include programmes to eradicate poverty.
104. To achieve a world-class status, it is incumbent on Kuala Lumpur to provide a high quality of life for its population, both in terms of the facilities that the City can offer and in the creation of a framework within which all residents can have equitable access to its facilities and free from poverty.
 

Photo 5.1: ... the satisfaction of living in a clean environment as well as the enjoyment of the aesthetic and the piritual.

5.2 Existing situation and issue
 5.2.1  Household Income
 a)  Average Income

105. The average monthly household income for Kuala Lumpur has increased from RM3,371 in 1995 to RM4,105 in 1999. Compared with the national average of RM2,472 in 1999, Kuala Lumpur’s average household income is higher by 66.0 percent.
106. The average annual growth rate of household income for Kuala Lumpur for the period 1995 - 1999 was 5.0 percent which is slightly lower than the national average of 5.2 percent (refer Table 5.1).
 

Table 5.1: Average Monthly Household Income, 1995 - 1999

 b)  Indirect Income Indicators

107. In terms of indirect income indicators such as car and motorcycle ownership, Table 5.2 shows that Kuala Lumpur has 985.7 cars and motorcycles per 1,000 population in 2000 compared to 421.9 per 1,000 population for Malaysia as a whole. This indicates that the ownership rate of motor vehicles in Kuala Lumpur is twice that of the national average (refer Table 5.2).
108. In terms of telephone lines, although the figures indicate a reduction in the number of telephone lines per 1000 population from 1995 to 1997, the actual usage of telephones in Kuala Lumpur has increased, in the form of mobile telephones.
 

Table 5.2: Indirect Income Indicators, 1995 - 2000

 c)  Income Distribution
 i.  Existing Situation

109. Figure 5.1 indicates the comparison between Kuala Lumpur and Malaysia in terms of household income distribution. The relative affluence of the residents of Kuala Lumpur is evidenced by the fact that 23.5 percent of Kuala Lumpur households earned more than RM5,000 per month compared to 9.8 percent for Malaysia as a whole. However, 8.1 percent of households in the City earned less than RM1,000, which would place them in a category that is unable to afford even a low cost house.
 

Figure 5.1: Distribution of Monthly Gross Household Income, 1999

 ii.  Issue

  • A sizeable proportion of the population falls into the low income group.

 d)  Poverty Level
 i.  Existing Situation

110. The poverty level in Kuala Lumpur has increased from 0.5 percent in 1995 to 2.3 percent in 1999, although this is still low compared to national average of 7.5 percent (refer Figure 5.2).
111. In addition, the poverty level does not take into consideration the higher costs of living in the City. The national poverty line figure for a household income of RM510 (at 1997 prices) should be adjusted to the more realistic figure of RM750 for Kuala Lumpur. At this adjusted division line, the incidence of poverty in Kuala Lumpur does not differ greatly from the national average of around 7.5 percent.
 

Figure 5.2: Incidence of Poverty 1995 - 1999

 ii.  Issue

  • Increase in the number of urban poor.

 5.2.2  Household Income

112. The Quality of Life Survey 1998 measured the satisfaction level of Kuala Lumpur’s residents with respect to a number of specific facilities and services. More than 40 percent of Kuala Lumpur residents faced difficulty in getting to their work place on time owing to traffic congestion.
113. Around 20 percent of residents were not satisfied with the provision of various public services and community facilities in their areas. There was generally a high level of dissatisfaction with respect to the road maintenance, bus services, street cleaning services and garbage disposal.
114. There was widespread concern among the public with the level of pollution of rivers, noise, air and destruction of forests. There were concern regarding safety and security as well as vandalism in some areas of the City. A more recent perception survey carried out by the Economic Planning Unit confirmed the above findings. It further revealed
a high level of dissatisfaction in respect of accessibility to cultural and recreational facilities and the low level of social interaction and integration in the City.
115. Despite the dissatisfaction with certain aspects of life in the City expressed in the survey, the majority of people in Kuala Lumpur, irrespective of income or skill level, stated their preference to live in Kuala Lumpur rather than any where else. This indicates a sense of identity and pride in their City. All respondents agreed that they have achieved
some degree of upward mobility in all aspects of their lives - socially, economically and in terms of job security.

 i.  Issue

  • Dissatisfaction with certain infrastructure, utilities, services, community and cultural facilities.

5.3 Objective

116. In line with the vision of A World-Class City, the objectives related to income and quality of life are to:

• eradicate poverty and raise the overall income level especially those of the low income group;

• provide opportunities and facilities for residents to attain economic and social progress; and

• provide a clean, pleasant and safe living environment and access to high quality community and cultural facilities as well as public services that are supported by efficient infrastructure.

5.4 Policy and proposal
 5.4.1  Household Income

117. Household income includes both earned and unearned income. ‘Unearned’ income includes rental income (or imputed rental income of owneroccupied houses) and capital gain from property ownership. This is an important factor in the improvement of income and net worth of low income households. As property values increase with the growth of the economy and of the City, the income and net worth of property owning low income households increase.
118. Home ownership shall be the main aim of the City’s low cost housing programmes so that owner-occupiers can enjoy capital gains from their properties. Owners of low cost housing should be permitted to mortgage or sell their properties to realise the capital gains if they so desire. This will enable those in the lower income group to raise funds to finance productive investments in education, business or acquisition of better properties.
119. In spite of the initiatives undertaken by the CHKL to create opportunities to enhance income and to provide housing, health and educational services, there are still poor groups existing in the City.
 
Policy
IC 1: CHKL shall implement measures to increase the ‘unearned’ income component of the net worth of low income households.
IC 2: CHKL shall put more efforts to eradicate poverty including the cooperation with the relevant agencies.
 

Photo 5.2: Home ownership shall be the main aim of the City’s low cost housing programmes so that owner-occupiers can enjoy capital gains from their properties.
120. Some parts of the City, especially the Malay Reservation Areas, traditional kampungs, new villages and dilapidated areas, have low property values even though they are strategically located. Measures shall be taken to realise the full potential of these areas.
 
Policy
IC 3: CHKL shall facilitate the development of the Malay Reservation Areas, traditional kampungs, new villages and dilapidated areas.
121. Development of the Malay Reservation Areas, traditional kampungs and new villages is discussed in Chapter 16.0: Special Areas.

 5.4.2  Social Programme

122. To further assist the low income group and urban poor, CHKL shall provide financial, organisational and expert assistance through its social programmes to raise the income and improve the quality of life. Programmes to support and develop business initiatives for this group shall be encouraged.

Policy
IC 4: CHKL shall promote and expand social programmes for low income communities and the urban poor.
 

Photo 5.3 : ... social programmes for low income communities
and the urban poor.

 5.4.3  Other components of quality of life
 a)  Improvement of public services

123. Good access to high quality public, social and cultural facilities will contribute a great deal to the improvement of the quality of life of the City’s residents. CHKL can provide good governance by recruiting the participation of residents in the improvement of their living environment.

Policy
IC 5: CHKL shall, in coordination with the relevant authorities and agencies and with the involvement of the public, ensures the provision of high quality public services.
 

Photo 5.4: ... the provision of high quality public services.

 b)  Enhancement of the local environment

124. There is a reservoir of support from Kuala Lumpur residents as suggested by their expressed pride in and sense of belonging to their City. To capitalise on this and to enhance the living environment, a ‘self-managed community’ concept could be introduced where the residential communities themselves manage and improve their own areas with CHKL providing support in terms of training, materials and expertise.

Policy
IC 6: CHKL shall adopt the ‘self-managed community’ concept and promote its
implementation in selected residential areas.
 

Photo 5.5: ... a ‘self-managed community’... manage and improve
their own areas...