|| The quality of life of a city is always
measured against the quality of its infrastructure and utility services
and the general level of satisfaction of its citizens with such provisions
and services. The efficient and reliable delivery of
essential services is, therefore, a minimum expectation of a modern
city. In order for Kuala Lumpur to achieve the status of a world-class
city, its infrastructure and utilities must be of the highest quality,
without any problems associated with interrupted supplies, shortages,
the use of substandard equipment or materials or unsatisfactory
|| Although, in many cases, CHKL has
no direct control over the adequacy of provision of infrastructure,
utilities and services, any inadequacies reflect on the City as a
whole and, therefore, indirectly on CHKL itself. To that extent CHKL
must concern itself with the proper planning and coordination of these
services to ensure that they meet the needs and expectations of the
|| Information technology is now a global
driving force in wealth creation and it is essential that modern cities
incorporate comprehensive ICT networks in addition to the more traditional
infrastructure requirements. Malaysia has taken a bold step in initiating
the MSC, a large part of which extends into the City Centre. Kuala
Lumpur must exploit the opportunities afforded by this initiative
to make it one of the most developed in the world in terms of ICT
situation and issue
|| Responsibility for the planning, capital
works, operation and maintenance of almost all infrastructure and
utilities in Kuala Lumpur lies with agencies independent of CHKL,
most of which are also private corporations operating on a profitmaking
basis. CHKL has, therefore, little direct control over the quality
of infrastructure delivery, performance and customer service.
|| A consequence of the lack of direct
control over the provision and maintenance of utilities is that they
have often been carried out in an uncoordinated manner.
The installation and maintenance of utilities are carried out
in an uncoordinated manner.
water drainage and flood mitigation
|| The natural drainage system of Kuala
Lumpur includes three primary rivers with a total length of 32.8 kilometres
and eight other rivers with a combined length of 40.6 kilometres.
The Department of Irrigation and Drainage (DID) is primarily responsible
for major capital works associated with the maintenance of the river
system of Kuala Lumpur.
|| The CHKL Department of Drainage and
River Management is responsible for the regular maintenance of the
rivers including de-silting and the operation of 15 rubbish traps.
The department is also responsible for capital works, upgrading, structural
repairs and maintenance of about 350 kilometres of minor rivers and
trunk/monsoon drains. There are a total of 21 catchment systems conveying
storm water runoff from individual roadside drains, each catchment
area generally covering a minimum of 40 hectares. The Citys
river and drainage system, which consist of a total of 2,400 kilometres
of reticulation drains, are indicated in Figure 11.1.
|| Frequent flash floods occurring after
heavy downpours are a continuing problem for the City. Areas most
susceptible to flash floods are low lying areas along Sungai Klang
especially Kampong Datok Keramat, Jalan Yap Kwan Seng, Kampong Bharu,
Jalan Dang Wangi and Jalan Tun Perak/ Jalan Melaka in the City Centre.
Figure 11.1 : Rivers, drainage and retention pond system, 2000
|| Flooding is partly attributed to silting
of the rivers. The loading discharged into the rivers has made them
shallower, thus decreasing their flow capacity. The disposal of garbage
into the rivers by squatter settlements upstream also contributes
to the clogging of the rivers.
|| However, flooding in the City cannot
be resolved without consideration of the overall hydrological pattern
of the Klang River basin, as it is estimated that over 70 percent
of the volume of the rivers flowing through the City is contributed
by upstream sources. A contributory factor leading to flash floods
has been permanent structures within the river reserves which have
reduced the rivers flow capacity.
Photo 11.1: ...regular maintenance of the Citys rivers,
including de-silting and the operation of 15 rubbish traps.
|| The dynamic urban development of Kuala
Lumpur and its conurbation (KLC) has resulted in changes in both the
quantity and quality of the river water. The high proportion of hard
surfaced areas greatly reduces the amount of water filtering through
the soil, which further intensifies peak flows at discharge points.
|| Frequent flash floods due to
the heavy contribution of floodwaters from upstream catchments of
Kuala Lumpur and the inadequacy of the primary rivers to contain floodwaters.
and information technology systems
|| Malaysia is at the forefront of the
world in providing a regulatory and infrastructural framework necessary
to accommodate the rapidly converging communication and multimedia
industries. This provision is in support of the MSC which has the
potential to become a world information hub and a leading edge multimedia
centre attracting worldclass multimedia and information technology
companies and professionals.
|| The Malaysian Communication and Multimedia
Commission is the Federal regulatory agency responsible nationally
for telecommunication services, by way of licenses granted to a wide
range of network facilities providers, network services providers
and network applications providers.
|| The telecommunication infrastructure
in Kuala Lumpur has been comprehensively provided with fibre optic
transmission networks within the City Centre. The provision of telecommunication
infrastructure to Kuala Lumpur has to a large extent kept pace with
rapid advances in technology, with increasing consumer demand for
high-end services and with the growth in the number of residential
and business users.
|| Despite the efforts of the agency
responsible, there remain some difficulties in the provision of the
ICT system infrastructure in some parts of the City and, as a consequence,
full integration of the telecommunication network with the MSC has
not been achieved.
The development of the telecommunication network has not been
fully integrated with the Multimedia Super Corridor network.
|| The Perbadanan Urus Air Selangor Berhad
(PUAS), corporatised on 15 March 2002, is responsible for the provision
of the reticulated water supply to Kuala Lumpur. The operation of
all reservoirs and treatment plants is privatised or contracted out
and water is sold by the treatment concessionaries to PUAS for distribution.
The Bukit Nanas Treatment Plant is the sole water supply treatment
plant in Kuala Lumpur and only provides sufficient water for 98 square
kilometres of the City Centre. Kuala Lumpurs water supply requirement
is supplemented by four treatment
plants in Selangor.
|| Much needed attention is currently
being given to water supply planning for the State of Selangor and
Kuala Lumpur, involving the development of new sources of supply and
trunk distribution mains, water treatment works and the replacement
of outdated plants and pipelines within the distribution network.
|| Attention has previously focused on
supply capacity and there have been some shortcomings in the quality
of provision. There is widespread dissatisfaction with the performance
of the water supply system in terms of poor quality of water and low
water pressure in hilly areas and the older parts of the City due
to aging pipelines.
Water quality is not at a satisfactory level; and
Low water pressure in certain parts of the City.
reticulation, treatment and effluent discharge
|| The Federal Department of Sewerage
Services is responsible for policy and performance audit matters relating
to the development and operation of sewerage reticulation and treatment
systems, including the arrangements by which private developers are
required to construct sewerage facilities as part of the development
infrastructure of any new project. The Department of Environment is
responsible for standards of affluent discharged from municipal sewerage
treatment plants and all associated environmental matters.
|| In 1994 the Federal Government appointed
a concessionaire to design, implement and manage a unified sewerage
scheme for Kuala Lumpur. The concessionaire has implemented a sewerage
master plan which divides Kuala Lumpur into seven catchments, each
of which has been provided with a regional waste treatment plant.
The number of oxidation ponds and other small sewerage treatment plants
is progressively being reduced as more catchments are being connected
to the unified sewerage system. Ultimately, all sewerage flows will
be directed to a single modern regional treatment facility. This will
overcome the problem of incompatibility of land uses between sewerage
treatment facilities and highly developed urban areas.
Photo 11.2: The Department of Environment is responsible for
standards of effluent discharged.....
|| The distribution of the existing sewerage
treatment plants and oxidation ponds in Kuala Lumpur is illustrated
in Figure 11.2.
|| Approximately 70 percent of residents
within Kuala Lumpur presently enjoy a reticulated sewerage service.
However a significant proportion of developed areas remain unconnected
to the centralized sewerage reticulation system particularly those,
which are remote from the more densely urbanised areas.
Significant number of areas in the City are still not connected
to the centralized sewerage system.
Figure 11.2 : Location of sewerage treatment facilities, 2000
|| The location of oxidation ponds close
to housing areas has given rise to complaints.
There is still a large number of oxidation ponds located close
to residential dwellings.
waste collection and disposal
|| Since January 1997, a concessionaire
has been responsible for solid domestic waste collection and disposal
for the Central Region, comprising Kuala Lumpur and the States of
Selangor, Pahang, Kelantan and Terengganu.
|| The responsibilities of the concessionaire
include the provision of communal bins for public use, ensuring waste
collection is carried out according to schedule, implementing an efficient
and cost effective solid waste management system, educating the public
on the proper handling and storage of waste and the development of
an effective recycling programme to reduce waste.
Photo 11.3: ...implementing an efficient and cost effective
solid waste management system...
|| Solid waste composition in 2000 was
estimated at 40 percent domestic, 10 percent commercial, 5 percent
institutional, 33 percent industrial, 10 percent construction and
2 percent municipal waste.
|| The 15 hectare Taman Beringin, Jinjang
landfill site receives an average of 2,000 tonnes/ day of solid waste,
of which approximately 500 tonnes/day is sent out to an existing private
landfill site at Air Hitam, Puchong in Selangor. Solid waste collection
and disposal management in Kuala Lumpur has reached a critical stage
because the Taman Beringin, Jinjang site has limited further capacity.
The recently completed transfer station at the Taman Beringin is to
function in sorting waste for recovery of recyclables and compacting
of the remaining waste before it is transported to the Air Hitam site
for disposal by sanitary landfill.
|| Figure 11.3 shows the distribution
of the existing solid waste disposal sites.
|| There are programmes carried out by
CHKL and the concessionaire to reduce waste disposal requirements
through public participation in recycling. However, these programmes
have not been effective in raising public awareness to a satisfactory
Waste recycling programmes have not yet been effective.
toxic and clinical wastes
|| A concessionaire operates Malaysias
first integrated scheduled waste management service for the collection
and disposal of industrial, chemical and toxic wastes. This waste
management system comprises collection and transfer of waste disposal
at local transfer stations, transportation network of waste disposal
covering Peninsular Malaysia and a treatment and waste disposal centre
at Bukit Nanas in Negeri Sembilan. Its operations in Kuala Lumpur
involve the collection of scheduled wastes at the local waste generators
premises, transportation, treatment and final disposal. Another concessionaire
is responsible for the collection and disposal of clinical wastes.
Figure 11.3 : Location of transfer station and waste disposal
|| Tenaga Nasional Berhad (TNB) is responsible
for electricity transmission and distribution for the whole country
and is the countrys principal electricity producer, supplemented
by five independent power producers that also deliver
electricity to the national grid.
|| The national grid operates at 275kV
and 132kV. High voltage power is delivered to Kuala Lumpur at 33kV
and 11kV and reticulated through the City, predominantly underground,
at 400V and 240V for domestic consumers. There are a total of sixteen
132kV and seventy eight 33kV substations in Kuala Lumpur. System augmentation
programmes are presently in line with growth in consumer demand and
outdated plant and equipment is being replaced to maintain performance
and keep pace with technological advances.
|| Most of the electric transmission
reserves run alongside developed neighbourhood areas and there are
pressures to use these reserves for smallscale temporary development
such as nurseries, storage and parking facilities.
Pressure to use electric transmission reserves for small-scale
Photo 11.4: The national grid operates at 275kV and 132 kV.
|| In line with the national energy policy,
Petronas Gas Berhad, which is the supplier of gas to Gas Malaysia,
has expedited implementation of the Peninsular Gas Utilisation (PGU)
project, which will transport gas from the east coast southwards to
Johor Bahru and Singapore, with a pipeline branching north west at
Segamat to the Klang
Valley region. The natural gas distribution network is being developed
in phases based on demand.
|| Natural gas supplied to end users
within the City is taken from a PGU transmission pipeline at a city
gate station. As natural gas is odourless, an odourant agent is added
to the gas at an odouriser station located immediately after the city
gate station. Natural gas is then transported via feeder lines directly
to medium and large end users or to a
district station for distribution to small end users. At the end users
premises, gas is further regulated and metered.
|| The development of feeder and distribution
lines within Kuala Lumpur has commenced in accordance with a forward
plan to the year 2005. Presently, the largest single user of natural
gas in Kuala Lumpur is the KLCC, which utilises gas turbines to generate
its entire electricity requirement and for the operation of a centralized
cooling system. However, the natural gas reticulation system coverage
in industrial, commercial and residential sector in the City is still
|| The natural gas reticulation
system coverage in industrial, commercial and residential sector in
the City is still marginal.
|| To create the conditions necessary
for a world-class living, working and business environment, CHKL aims
provide a clean and pleasant living environment supported by
efficient infrastructure, utilities and services.
|| The improvement in the provision of
infrastructure, utilities and waste disposal services is fundamental
to the enhancement of the quality of life of the Citys population.
Programmes must be initiated to address all aspects of provision including
quality of service, maintenance, adequacy of availability of distribution
and reliability. Public feedback is the most effective means of evaluating
the adequacy of infrastructure, utilities and waste disposal services.
Hence procedures must be improved to facilitate such feedback and
involve the public more actively in the improvement of the living
environment. Public complaints will be monitored and CHKL shall liase
with utilities concessionaires on regular maintenance, repair and
|| CHKLs role as an overall co-coordinator
of infrastructure capital and maintenance works, service connection
and GIS database will be important. The regulatory framework within
which the independent infrastructure agencies operate needs to be
reviewed in order to increase their accountability to the community.
|UT 1 :
||CHKL shall, in coordination
with the appropriate authorities and agencies, enhance the provision
of infrastructure, utilities and waste disposal services and
ensure that they are reliable and sufficient to meet the needs
of the people.
|| In order to ensure that infrastructure,
utilities and waste disposal services are provided in a timely and
coordinated manner, it is important that the agencies concerned plan
for their future development in accordance with the Citys projected
planning requirements. To facilitate this process and enable the relevant
agencies to more accurately predict future requirements, a common
land use and demographic database will be prepared.
|UT 2 :
||CHKL shall, in coordination
with the appropriate authorities and agencies, ensure that infrastructure,
utilities and waste disposal services development plans complement
the Citys planned requirements.
water drainage and flood mitigation
|| A long-term programme to reducing
flooding is being implemented through the provision of flood retention
facilities. In addition, other more radical solutions should be investigated
such as flood bypass aqueducts to channel floodwater from upstream
without passing through the City Centre.
|| CHKL shall explore ways to implement
a new approach in handling a program for drainage and flood mitigation
and water quality control at source, as outlined in the manual for
storm water management prepared and adopted in the year 2000 by the
DID, namely the Urban Storm Water Management Manual For Malaysia (MASMA).
Photo 11.5: Former tin mining ponds will be converted to be
full-scale flood retention facilities and will also be developed for
|UT 3 :
||CHKL shall, in coordination
with Department of Irrigation and Drainage, take measures to
mitigate flash floods.
|| Former tin mining ponds will be converted
to be full-scale flood retention facilities and will also be developed
for recreational purposes.
|UT 4 :
||CHKL shall identify, gazette
and utilise former mining ponds as flood retention and recreation
and information technology system
|| The availability of high capacity
state-ofthe-art telecommunication and information systems infrastructure
is critical in developing Kuala Lumpur as a commercial and financial
centre able to compete technologically with the corporate drawing
power of other regional and international centres in the Asia Pacific
region. The provision of
telecommunication infrastructure in Kuala Lumpur has, to a large extent,
kept pace with advances in technology. However, the pace of change
is very rapid and it is necessary to coordinate closely with the Malaysian
Communication and Multimedia Commission so as to accelerate the provision
of an integrated and up-to-date ICT
|UT 5 :
||CHKL shall, in coordination
with the relevant agencies, develop an integrated communication
and information technology infrastructure for the City as part
of the Multimedia Super Corridor.
|| The unsatisfactory level of water
quality and the low water pressure in certain parts of the City are
not within the direct responsibility of CHKL. However, in order to
reduce demand on the water supply system, rainwater and wastewater
recycling measures should be implemented.
|UT 6 :
||CHKL shall implement measures
to reduce water demand by encouraging users to install rainwater
collection equipment and to recycle wastewater for non-drinking
reticulation, treatment and effluent discharge
|| As Kuala Lumpur has become more urbanised,
it is increasingly important to improve and extend the centralized
sewerage system and eliminate the sewerage oxidation ponds in the
|UT 7 :
||CHKL shall, in consultation with
the Federal Department of Sewerage Services and with the co-operation
of the sewerage concessionaire, ensure that the sewerage reticulation
system is consolidated and oxidation ponds eliminated.
|UT 8 :
||CHKL shall require all new housing
development to be connected to the centralized sewerage system.
|| Land made available for development
from the elimination of oxidisation ponds and other upgrading works
shall primarily be used for public purposes.
|UT 9 :
||CHKL shall ensure that land made
available from the upgrading of sewerage treatment plants be
primarily used for public purposes.
waste collection and disposal
|| The use of landfill sites for the
disposal of solid waste is uneconomical in terms of land use and is
environmentally undesirable. An incinerator is a solid waste disposal
system with high technology component on pollution control, which
is clean and efficient. The system is adopted in various cities of
developing countries. Thus solid waste will be disposed via incinerator
which is necessary to be built.
|| There is a need for a comprehensive
solid waste management plans in order to achieve a balanced and sustainable
living environment. The present strategy of reduce, recycle
and reuse to help reduce the demand for solid waste disposal
facilities should be an important part of this plan. However, measures
related to publicity and education campaigns, rules and regulation
must be introduced to improve the effectiveness of this programme.
|UT 10 :
||CHKL shall, in coordination with
the appropriate agencies, promote the strategy of reduce,
recycle and reuse of waste products.
toxic and clinical wastes
|| The centralized collection and disposal
of chemical, toxic and clinical wastes is a relatively new development
and it is important to ensure that operations are carried out safely
and efficiently. Monitoring procedures should be sufficient to ensure
that public confidence in these services is not jeopardised.
|UT 11 :
||CHKL shall support the relevant
agency to monitor the performance of the concessionaires involved
in the disposal of chemical, toxic and clinical waste to safeguard
public health and public confidence.
|| Most of the electric reticulation
lines in the City are underground. Transmission line reserves provide
opportunity for temporary uses.
|UT 12 :
||CHKL shall allow temporary development
within electric transmission line reserves in line with the
guidelines of Tenaga Nasional Berhad.
|| It is desirable that natural gas is
provided more extensively to industrial, commercial and residential
users as it contributes less to the greenhouse effect and is, therefore,
more environmentally friendly.
|UT 13 :
||CHKL shall require flatted development
to be installed with gas piping reticulation for piped gas supply.
||CHKL shall encourage the inclusion
of gas piping reticulation in other types of new housing development
to allow for piped gas supply.
|| The planning of infrastructure and
utilities is currently undertaken by independent agencies, each of
who develop their own master plans and programmes. However, the master
planning of infrastructure services should be coordinated according
to CHKLs projections, land use planning and future development.
In this way, provisions can be made for land requirements for particular
services such as major utility installation, common pipeline corridors
and drainage or flood mitigation reserves.