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Kuala Lumpur Structure Plan 2020

Preface

Acknowledgement

1 Introduction

2 International and National Context of Growth

3 Vision and Goals of Kuala Lumpur

4 Economic Base and Population

5 Income and Quality of Life

6 Land Use and Development Strategy

7 Commerce

8 Tourism

9 Industry

10 Transportation

11 Infrastructure and Utilities
  11.1 Introduction
  11.2 Existing situation and issue
    11.2.1 General
    11.2.2 Storm water drainage and flood mitigation
    11.2.3 Telecommunication and information technology systems
    11.2.4 Water supply
    11.2.5 Sewerage reticulation, treatment and effluent discharge
    11.2.6 Solid waste collection and disposal
    11.2.7 Chemical, toxic and clinical wastes
    11.2.8 Electricity supply
    11.2.9 Piped gas supply
  11.3 Objective
  11.4 Policy and proposal
    11.4.1 General
    11.4.2 Storm water drainage and flood mitigation
    11.4.3 Telecommunication and information technology system
    11.4.4 Water supply
    11.4.5 Sewerage reticulation, treatment and effluent discharge
    11.4.6 Solid waste collection and disposal
    11.4.7 Chemical, toxic and clinical wastes
    11.4.8 Electricity supply
    11.4.9 Piped gas supply
  11.5 Future requirement

12 Housing

13 Community Facilities

14 Urban Design and Landscape

15 Environment

16 Special Areas

17 Strategic Zone

18 Implementation

Abbreviations

Glossary

FAQ
11.1 Introduction

463. The quality of life of a city is always measured against the quality of its infrastructure and utility services and the general level of satisfaction of its citizens with such provisions and services. The efficient and reliable delivery of
essential services is, therefore, a minimum expectation of a modern city. In order for Kuala Lumpur to achieve the status of a world-class city, its infrastructure and utilities must be of the highest quality, without any problems associated with interrupted supplies, shortages, the use of substandard equipment or materials or unsatisfactory
services.
464. Although, in many cases, CHKL has no direct control over the adequacy of provision of infrastructure, utilities and services, any inadequacies reflect on the City as a whole and, therefore, indirectly on CHKL itself. To that extent CHKL must concern itself with the proper planning and coordination of these services to ensure that they meet the needs and expectations of the City’s population.
465. Information technology is now a global driving force in wealth creation and it is essential that modern cities incorporate comprehensive ICT networks in addition to the more traditional infrastructure requirements. Malaysia has taken a bold step in initiating the MSC, a large part of which extends into the City Centre. Kuala Lumpur must exploit the opportunities afforded by this initiative to make it one of the most developed in the world in terms of ICT infrastructure.

11.2 Existing situation and issue
 11.2.1  General
 i.  Existing situation

466. Responsibility for the planning, capital works, operation and maintenance of almost all infrastructure and utilities in Kuala Lumpur lies with agencies independent of CHKL, most of which are also private corporations operating on a profitmaking basis. CHKL has, therefore, little direct control over the quality of infrastructure delivery, performance and customer service.

 ii.  Issue

467. A consequence of the lack of direct control over the provision and maintenance of utilities is that they have often been carried out in an uncoordinated manner.

• The installation and maintenance of utilities are carried out in an uncoordinated manner.

 11.2.2  Storm water drainage and flood mitigation
 i.  Existing situation

468. The natural drainage system of Kuala Lumpur includes three primary rivers with a total length of 32.8 kilometres and eight other rivers with a combined length of 40.6 kilometres. The Department of Irrigation and Drainage (DID) is primarily responsible for major capital works associated with the maintenance of the river system of Kuala Lumpur.
469. The CHKL Department of Drainage and River Management is responsible for the regular maintenance of the rivers including de-silting and the operation of 15 rubbish traps. The department is also responsible for capital works, upgrading, structural repairs and maintenance of about 350 kilometres of minor rivers and trunk/monsoon drains. There are a total of 21 catchment systems conveying storm water runoff from individual roadside drains, each catchment area generally covering a minimum of 40 hectares. The City’s river and drainage system, which consist of a total of 2,400 kilometres of reticulation drains, are indicated in Figure 11.1.
470. Frequent flash floods occurring after heavy downpours are a continuing problem for the City. Areas most susceptible to flash floods are low lying areas along Sungai Klang especially Kampong Datok Keramat, Jalan Yap Kwan Seng, Kampong Bharu, Jalan Dang Wangi and Jalan Tun Perak/ Jalan Melaka in the City Centre.
 

Figure 11.1 : Rivers, drainage and retention pond system, 2000
471. Flooding is partly attributed to silting of the rivers. The loading discharged into the rivers has made them shallower, thus decreasing their flow capacity. The disposal of garbage into the rivers by squatter settlements upstream also contributes to the clogging of the rivers.
472. However, flooding in the City cannot be resolved without consideration of the overall hydrological pattern of the Klang River basin, as it is estimated that over 70 percent of the volume of the rivers flowing through the City is contributed by upstream sources. A contributory factor leading to flash floods has been permanent structures within the river reserves which have reduced the rivers’ flow capacity.
 

Photo 11.1: ...regular maintenance of the City’s rivers, including de-silting and the operation of 15 rubbish traps.
473. The dynamic urban development of Kuala Lumpur and its conurbation (KLC) has resulted in changes in both the quantity and quality of the river water. The high proportion of hard surfaced areas greatly reduces the amount of water filtering through the soil, which further intensifies peak flows at discharge points.

 ii.  Issue

  • Frequent flash floods due to the heavy contribution of floodwaters from upstream catchments of Kuala Lumpur and the inadequacy of the primary rivers to contain floodwaters.

 11.2.3  Telecommunication and information technology systems
 i.  Existing situation

474. Malaysia is at the forefront of the world in providing a regulatory and infrastructural framework necessary to accommodate the rapidly converging communication and multimedia industries. This provision is in support of the MSC which has the potential to become a world information hub and a leading edge multimedia centre attracting worldclass multimedia and information technology companies and professionals.
475. The Malaysian Communication and Multimedia Commission is the Federal regulatory agency responsible nationally for telecommunication services, by way of licenses granted to a wide range of network facilities providers, network services providers and network applications providers.
476. The telecommunication infrastructure in Kuala Lumpur has been comprehensively provided with fibre optic transmission networks within the City Centre. The provision of telecommunication infrastructure to Kuala Lumpur has to a large extent kept pace with rapid advances in technology, with increasing consumer demand for high-end services and with the growth in the number of residential and business users.

 ii.  Issue

477. Despite the efforts of the agency responsible, there remain some difficulties in the provision of the ICT system infrastructure in some parts of the City and, as a consequence, full integration of the telecommunication network with the MSC has not been achieved.

• The development of the telecommunication network has not been fully integrated with the Multimedia Super Corridor network.

 11.2.4  Water supply
 i.  Existing situation

478. The Perbadanan Urus Air Selangor Berhad (PUAS), corporatised on 15 March 2002, is responsible for the provision of the reticulated water supply to Kuala Lumpur. The operation of all reservoirs and treatment plants is privatised or contracted out and water is sold by the treatment concessionaries to PUAS for distribution. The Bukit Nanas Treatment Plant is the sole water supply treatment plant in Kuala Lumpur and only provides sufficient water for 98 square kilometres of the City Centre. Kuala Lumpur’s water supply requirement is supplemented by four treatment
plants in Selangor.
479. Much needed attention is currently being given to water supply planning for the State of Selangor and Kuala Lumpur, involving the development of new sources of supply and trunk distribution mains, water treatment works and the replacement of outdated plants and pipelines within the distribution network.

 ii.  Issue

480. Attention has previously focused on supply capacity and there have been some shortcomings in the quality of provision. There is widespread dissatisfaction with the performance of the water supply system in terms of poor quality of water and low water pressure in hilly areas and the older parts of the City due to aging pipelines.

• Water quality is not at a satisfactory level; and

• Low water pressure in certain parts of the City.

 11.2.5  Sewerage reticulation, treatment and effluent discharge
 i.  Existing situation

481. The Federal Department of Sewerage Services is responsible for policy and performance audit matters relating to the development and operation of sewerage reticulation and treatment systems, including the arrangements by which private developers are required to construct sewerage facilities as part of the development infrastructure of any new project. The Department of Environment is responsible for standards of affluent discharged from municipal sewerage treatment plants and all associated environmental matters.
482. In 1994 the Federal Government appointed a concessionaire to design, implement and manage a unified sewerage scheme for Kuala Lumpur. The concessionaire has implemented a sewerage master plan which divides Kuala Lumpur into seven catchments, each of which has been provided with a regional waste treatment plant. The number of oxidation ponds and other small sewerage treatment plants is progressively being reduced as more catchments are being connected to the unified sewerage system. Ultimately, all sewerage flows will be directed to a single modern regional treatment facility. This will overcome the problem of incompatibility of land uses between sewerage treatment facilities and highly developed urban areas.
 

Photo 11.2: The Department of Environment is responsible for standards of effluent discharged.....
483. The distribution of the existing sewerage treatment plants and oxidation ponds in Kuala Lumpur is illustrated in Figure 11.2.

 ii.  Issue

484. Approximately 70 percent of residents within Kuala Lumpur presently enjoy a reticulated sewerage service. However a significant proportion of developed areas remain unconnected to the centralized sewerage reticulation system particularly those, which are remote from the more densely urbanised areas.

• Significant number of areas in the City are still not connected to the centralized sewerage system.
 

Figure 11.2 : Location of sewerage treatment facilities, 2000
485. The location of oxidation ponds close to housing areas has given rise to complaints.

• There is still a large number of oxidation ponds located close to residential dwellings.

 11.2.6  Solid waste collection and disposal
 i.  Existing situation

486. Since January 1997, a concessionaire has been responsible for solid domestic waste collection and disposal for the Central Region, comprising Kuala Lumpur and the States of Selangor, Pahang, Kelantan and Terengganu.
487. The responsibilities of the concessionaire include the provision of communal bins for public use, ensuring waste collection is carried out according to schedule, implementing an efficient and cost effective solid waste management system, educating the public on the proper handling and storage of waste and the development of an effective recycling programme to reduce waste.
 

Photo 11.3: ...implementing an efficient and cost effective solid waste management system...
488. Solid waste composition in 2000 was estimated at 40 percent domestic, 10 percent commercial, 5 percent institutional, 33 percent industrial, 10 percent construction and 2 percent municipal waste.
489. The 15 hectare Taman Beringin, Jinjang landfill site receives an average of 2,000 tonnes/ day of solid waste, of which approximately 500 tonnes/day is sent out to an existing private landfill site at Air Hitam, Puchong in Selangor. Solid waste collection and disposal management in Kuala Lumpur has reached a critical stage because the Taman Beringin, Jinjang site has limited further capacity. The recently completed transfer station at the Taman Beringin is to function in sorting waste for recovery of recyclables and compacting of the remaining waste before it is transported to the Air Hitam site for disposal by sanitary landfill.
490. Figure 11.3 shows the distribution of the existing solid waste disposal sites.

 ii.  Issue

491. There are programmes carried out by CHKL and the concessionaire to reduce waste disposal requirements through public participation in recycling. However, these programmes have not been effective in raising public awareness to a satisfactory level.

• Waste recycling programmes have not yet been effective.

 11.2.7  Chemical, toxic and clinical wastes
 i.  Existing situation

492. A concessionaire operates Malaysia’s first integrated scheduled waste management service for the collection and disposal of industrial, chemical and toxic wastes. This waste management system comprises collection and transfer of waste disposal at local transfer stations, transportation network of waste disposal covering Peninsular Malaysia and a treatment and waste disposal centre at Bukit Nanas in Negeri Sembilan. Its operations in Kuala Lumpur involve the collection of scheduled wastes at the local waste generators’ premises, transportation, treatment and final disposal. Another concessionaire is responsible for the collection and disposal of clinical wastes.
 

Figure 11.3 : Location of transfer station and waste disposal sites, 2000

 11.2.8  Electricity supply
 i.  Existing situation

493. Tenaga Nasional Berhad (TNB) is responsible for electricity transmission and distribution for the whole country and is the country’s principal electricity producer, supplemented by five independent power producers that also deliver
electricity to the national grid.
494. The national grid operates at 275kV and 132kV. High voltage power is delivered to Kuala Lumpur at 33kV and 11kV and reticulated through the City, predominantly underground, at 400V and 240V for domestic consumers. There are a total of sixteen 132kV and seventy eight 33kV substations in Kuala Lumpur. System augmentation programmes are presently in line with growth in consumer demand and outdated plant and equipment is being replaced to maintain performance and keep pace with technological advances.

 ii.  Issue

495. Most of the electric transmission reserves run alongside developed neighbourhood areas and there are pressures to use these reserves for smallscale temporary development such as nurseries, storage and parking facilities.

• Pressure to use electric transmission reserves for small-scale temporary development.
 

Photo 11.4: The national grid operates at 275kV and 132 kV.

 11.2.9  Piped gas supply
 i.  Existing situation

496. In line with the national energy policy, Petronas Gas Berhad, which is the supplier of gas to Gas Malaysia, has expedited implementation of the Peninsular Gas Utilisation (PGU) project, which will transport gas from the east coast southwards to Johor Bahru and Singapore, with a pipeline branching north west at Segamat to the Klang
Valley region. The natural gas distribution network is being developed in phases based on demand.
497. Natural gas supplied to end users within the City is taken from a PGU transmission pipeline at a city gate station. As natural gas is odourless, an odourant agent is added to the gas at an odouriser station located immediately after the city gate station. Natural gas is then transported via feeder lines directly to medium and large end users or to a
district station for distribution to small end users. At the end users premises, gas is further regulated and metered.
498. The development of feeder and distribution lines within Kuala Lumpur has commenced in accordance with a forward plan to the year 2005. Presently, the largest single user of natural gas in Kuala Lumpur is the KLCC, which utilises gas turbines to generate its entire electricity requirement and for the operation of a centralized cooling system. However, the natural gas reticulation system coverage in industrial, commercial and residential sector in the City is still marginal.

 ii.  Issue

  • The natural gas reticulation system coverage in industrial, commercial and residential sector in the City is still marginal.

11.3 Objective

499. To create the conditions necessary for a world-class living, working and business environment, CHKL aims to:

• provide a clean and pleasant living environment supported by efficient infrastructure, utilities and services.

11.4 Policy and proposal
 11.4.1  General

500. The improvement in the provision of infrastructure, utilities and waste disposal services is fundamental to the enhancement of the quality of life of the City’s population. Programmes must be initiated to address all aspects of provision including quality of service, maintenance, adequacy of availability of distribution and reliability. Public feedback is the most effective means of evaluating the adequacy of infrastructure, utilities and waste disposal services. Hence procedures must be improved to facilitate such feedback and involve the public more actively in the improvement of the living environment. Public complaints will be monitored and CHKL shall liase with utilities concessionaires on regular maintenance, repair and servicing.
501. CHKL’s role as an overall co-coordinator of infrastructure capital and maintenance works, service connection and GIS database will be important. The regulatory framework within which the independent infrastructure agencies operate needs to be reviewed in order to increase their accountability to the community.


Policy
UT 1 : CHKL shall, in coordination with the appropriate authorities and agencies, enhance the provision of infrastructure, utilities and waste disposal services and ensure that they are reliable and sufficient to meet the needs of the people.
502. In order to ensure that infrastructure, utilities and waste disposal services are provided in a timely and coordinated manner, it is important that the agencies concerned plan for their future development in accordance with the City’s projected planning requirements. To facilitate this process and enable the relevant agencies to more accurately predict future requirements, a common land use and demographic database will be prepared.


Policy
UT 2 : CHKL shall, in coordination with the appropriate authorities and agencies, ensure that infrastructure, utilities and waste disposal services development plans complement the City’s planned requirements.

 11.4.2  Storm water drainage and flood mitigation

503. A long-term programme to reducing flooding is being implemented through the provision of flood retention facilities. In addition, other more radical solutions should be investigated such as flood bypass aqueducts to channel floodwater from upstream without passing through the City Centre.
504. CHKL shall explore ways to implement a new approach in handling a program for drainage and flood mitigation and water quality control at source, as outlined in the manual for storm water management prepared and adopted in the year 2000 by the DID, namely the Urban Storm Water Management Manual For Malaysia (MASMA).


 

Photo 11.5: Former tin mining ponds will be converted to be full-scale flood retention facilities and will also be developed for recreational purposes.


 
Policy
UT 3 : CHKL shall, in coordination with Department of Irrigation and Drainage, take measures to mitigate flash floods.
505. Former tin mining ponds will be converted to be full-scale flood retention facilities and will also be developed for recreational purposes.


Policy
UT 4 : CHKL shall identify, gazette and utilise former mining ponds as flood retention and recreation facilities.

 11.4.3  Telecommunication and information technology system

506. The availability of high capacity state-ofthe-art telecommunication and information systems infrastructure is critical in developing Kuala Lumpur as a commercial and financial centre able to compete technologically with the corporate drawing power of other regional and international centres in the Asia Pacific region. The provision of
telecommunication infrastructure in Kuala Lumpur has, to a large extent, kept pace with advances in technology. However, the pace of change is very rapid and it is necessary to coordinate closely with the Malaysian Communication and Multimedia Commission so as to accelerate the provision of an integrated and up-to-date ICT
infrastructure.


Policy
UT 5 : CHKL shall, in coordination with the relevant agencies, develop an integrated communication and information technology infrastructure for the City as part of the Multimedia Super Corridor.

 11.4.4  Water supply

507. The unsatisfactory level of water quality and the low water pressure in certain parts of the City are not within the direct responsibility of CHKL. However, in order to reduce demand on the water supply system, rainwater and wastewater recycling measures should be implemented.


Policy
UT 6 : CHKL shall implement measures to reduce water demand by encouraging users to install rainwater collection equipment and to recycle wastewater for non-drinking purposes.

 11.4.5  Sewerage reticulation, treatment and effluent discharge

508. As Kuala Lumpur has become more urbanised, it is increasingly important to improve and extend the centralized sewerage system and eliminate the sewerage oxidation ponds in the City.


Policy
UT 7 : CHKL shall, in consultation with the Federal Department of Sewerage Services and with the co-operation of the sewerage concessionaire, ensure that the sewerage reticulation system is consolidated and oxidation ponds eliminated.
UT 8 : CHKL shall require all new housing development to be connected to the centralized sewerage system.
509. Land made available for development from the elimination of oxidisation ponds and other upgrading works shall primarily be used for public purposes.


Policy
UT 9 : CHKL shall ensure that land made available from the upgrading of sewerage treatment plants be primarily used for public purposes.

 11.4.6  Solid waste collection and disposal

510. The use of landfill sites for the disposal of solid waste is uneconomical in terms of land use and is environmentally undesirable. An incinerator is a solid waste disposal system with high technology component on pollution control, which is clean and efficient. The system is adopted in various cities of developing countries. Thus solid waste will be disposed via incinerator which is necessary to be built.
511. There is a need for a comprehensive solid waste management plans in order to achieve a balanced and sustainable living environment. The present strategy of “reduce, recycle and reuse” to help reduce the demand for solid waste disposal facilities should be an important part of this plan. However, measures related to publicity and education campaigns, rules and regulation must be introduced to improve the effectiveness of this programme.


Policy
UT 10 : CHKL shall, in coordination with the appropriate agencies, promote the strategy of “reduce, recycle and reuse” of waste products.

 11.4.7  Chemical, toxic and clinical wastes

512. The centralized collection and disposal of chemical, toxic and clinical wastes is a relatively new development and it is important to ensure that operations are carried out safely and efficiently. Monitoring procedures should be sufficient to ensure that public confidence in these services is not jeopardised.


Policy
UT 11 : CHKL shall support the relevant agency to monitor the performance of the concessionaires involved in the disposal of chemical, toxic and clinical waste to safeguard public health and public confidence.

 11.4.8  Electricity supply

513. Most of the electric reticulation lines in the City are underground. Transmission line reserves provide opportunity for temporary uses.

Policy
UT 12 : CHKL shall allow temporary development within electric transmission line reserves in line with the guidelines of Tenaga Nasional Berhad.

 11.4.9  Piped gas supply

514. It is desirable that natural gas is provided more extensively to industrial, commercial and residential users as it contributes less to the greenhouse effect and is, therefore, more environmentally friendly.

Policy
UT 13 : CHKL shall require flatted development to be installed with gas piping reticulation for piped gas supply.
UT 14: CHKL shall encourage the inclusion of gas piping reticulation in other types of new housing development to allow for piped gas supply.

11.5 Future requirement

515. The planning of infrastructure and utilities is currently undertaken by independent agencies, each of who develop their own master plans and programmes. However, the master planning of infrastructure services should be coordinated according to CHKL’s projections, land use planning and future development. In this way, provisions can be made for land requirements for particular services such as major utility installation, common pipeline corridors and drainage or flood mitigation reserves.