||Being the premier city and the capital of
a nation with a highly trade oriented economy that aspires to be fully
developed by the year 2020, Kuala Lumpurs vision, goals, functions
and growth must be seen both from the national and the broader global
perspective, especially within the context of development of the Asia
||The decline in trade barriers, the vast
improvements in transportation and communication systems and networks
over the last few decades have enhanced the volume of international
trade in goods and services. Accompanying these are the enhanced international
mobility of human resources, short and long-term capital and the growth
in the number, strength and influence of transnational companies
||The world economy has consequently become
more integrated and global in nature. Major economic activities especially
manufacturing have become more dispersed globally as processes within
the production chain of increasingly more complex consumer and capital
goods move to places that offer the best competitive advantage.
||The global dispersion of production and
marketing activities of transnational companies requires the global
dispersal of management, control and support. This is achieved by
the establishment of regional headquarters offices in strategically
located cities which can offer suitable infrastructure, supporting
services, living environment and other
ancillary activities. Many cities that have assumed an important role
by providing a base for the efficient conduct of international business
have attained the status of global or world
cities. Examples of top ranked global city are London, New York, Paris
and Tokyo. Others that play more of a regional or sub global role
within the Asia Pacific Region (refer Figure 2.1) are cities such
as Hong Kong, Singapore and Sydney.
the premier city and the capital of a nation
with a highly trade oriented economy...
|| In addition to the globalisation trend,
another factor that is and will influence the growth of the nation
and that of Kuala Lumpur is the increase in the importance of the
knowledge-based economic activities especially those relating to the
development of information and communication technology (ICT).
|| Industries that generate knowledge such
as research and development in biotechnology, computer software multimedia
applications, new technology for the computer and other hardware and
industries that process, distribute and manage information such as
educational institutions, telecommunication and Internet systems,
advertising and professional services are the key drivers of the Knowledge-Based
||Agenda 21, a comprehensive programme for
action relating to sustainable development, was adopted at the United
Nations Conference on Environment and Development (the Earth Summit)
in Rio de Janeiro in 1992. A fundamental tenet of Agenda 21 is that
development must be sustainable, that is, it must be able to meet
the needs of the current generation without compromising the ability
of future generations to meet their own needs. The strategy of sustainable
development is one, by which communities seek economic development
approaches that benefit the local environment and, at the same time,
enhance the quality of life.
||Local Agenda 21 grew out of Agenda 21 and
is aimed at forging a partnership between local authorities and the
public they serve, so that they may work together to plan and care
for their surroundings within the context of sustainability.
Figure 2.1: Asia Pacific Region
||Vision 2020 identifies globalisation as
one of the major underlying mega trends which Malaysia
must follow in order to ensure a sound basis for economic development,
a view further emphasised by the Third Outline Perspective Plan (OPP3,
2001- 2010) and Second Industrial Master Plan (1996- 2005). While
Kuala Lumpur may not aspire to join the top rank of global cities
within the foreseeable future, as the nations premier city,
it must adopt
||Industries and services that have a high
export potential are those which are needed to provide the impetus
towards globalisation. High technology and high skilled industries,
together with finance, transportation, tourism, business, information
and professional services shopping and other commercial activities,
are the principal components of the nations economy, which must
be developed to a level well beyond where it is now. In this respect,
Kuala Lumpur being the premier city must play the leading role.
||Kuala Lumpur and its conurbation (KLC) (refer
Figure 2.2) is already being prepared to play a global role. The KLIA
is being promoted as a regional hub for air travel while concerted
efforts are being made to develop Port Klang as a major trans-shipment
port for Malaysia and the region. Similarly the development of the
Multimedia Super Corridor (MSC) together with the continuous and progressive
liberalisation of the trade and finance sectors, reinforces the aim
of giving Kuala Lumpur and its conurbation a greater global orientation.
Photo 2.2: Kuala Lumpur and its conurbation is already being prepared
to play a global role.
Kuala Lumpur And Its Conurbation
The Klang Valley Region
||The growth of the City of Kuala Lumpur must also be
seen from the narrower sub-national perspective. At the time of the
KLSP 1984, the Klang Valley Region was the sub-national context within
which the growth of Kuala Lumpur was determined. However, major new
developments outside it, in particular the KLIA, Putrajaya and Cyberjaya,
have rendered the concept of the Klang Valley Region as a sub-national
planning entity far less relevant.
Lumpur and its conurbation
||A more appropriate term of reference for Kuala Lumpurs
sub-national context is the Kuala Lumpur and its conurbation (KLC).
The KLC refers to the entire Klang Valley Region as originally defined
by the Klang Valley Study (1972) together with much of the Kuala Langat
district and the remaining part of the Sepang district where the KLIA
is located. It covers a total area of approximately 4,000 square kilometres,
which is about 40 percent larger than
the size of the Klang Valley Region of 2,843 square kilometres.
||The KLC is one large urban entity which incorporates
the complete range of urban functions. However, it is important to
distinguish between Kuala Lumpur, which is an administrative unit
and the much larger KLC which represents the total urban entity within
which Kuala Lumpur is located and functions in many ways as the nucleus
of the KLC. Kuala Lumpurs role, status and specific functions
within the overall KLC must be defined within the context of the wider
total urban entity. Similarly, in view of their symbiotic relationship,
the planning of Kuala Lumpur must take full account of developments
in the KLC as a whole.
||Since the KLSP 1984, the other urban centres in the
Klang Valley Region, notably Petaling Jaya, Shah Alam and Subang Jaya,
have grown at a rate that far outstrips that of the City. There has
been strong in-migration to the KLC outside Kuala Lumpur from all
over the country and net out-migration from Kuala Lumpur into residential
areas located outside the City. In the year 2000, the population of
Kuala Lumpur was approximately 1.42 million compared to 4.30 million
for the whole of the KLC, a population distribution pattern not envisaged
by the KLSP 1984.
||As the MSC, especially Putrajaya and Cyberjaya grow,
so will the proportion of the total built-up area in the KLC compared
to Kuala Lumpur. This decline in the relative size of Kuala Lumpur,
in terms of population and built-up area, underlines the importance
of defining the functions of the Kuala Lumpur within the context of
||Currently, planning and development coordination in
the Klang Valley is undertaken by the Klang Valley Planning Council
and Klang Valley Working Committee. In line with the expansion of
Kuala Lumpur and its conurbation planning areas, the jurisdiction
of these bodies need to be reviewed and detailed.
||Issues that need to be highlighted at the regional planning
level relate to aspects on physical, socio-economic and spiritual
development such as coordination on functions of growth centres in
Kuala Lumpur and its conurbation, environmental management, planning
and development of industries, transportation networks, distribution
community facilities, cemeteries, flood mitigation, waste collection
and disposal as well as the human and community development.
Multimedia Super Corridor
||KLC that will have the most profound
implication on the growth, function and development policies and strategies
for Kuala Lumpur is the development of the Multimedia Super Corridor
(MSC). MSC is a corridor with dimensions 50 x 15 kilometres, stretching
from the KLIA in the south to Kuala Lumpur City Centre (KLCC) in the
north. The MSC corridor comprises two strategic centres, namely Cyberjaya
as the multimedia centre and Putrajaya as the administrative centre.
Besides, there are also six main centres i.e. the Airport City as
a service centre for the KLIA development, Siber Village for small
and medium industrial development, High-Tech Village for high industrial
technological development, Tele-Suburb for smart housing and educational,
and R&D centre for academic institution and corporate research
||There are 5 cyber cities in the MSC
where companies with MSC status can locate their business premises.
The Cyber City comprises KLCC, Kuala Lumpur Tower, Technology Park
Malaysia, Universiti Putra Malaysia - Malaysia Technology Development
Corporation (UPM-MTDC) and Cyberjaya. Multimedia Development Corporation
audit all cyber cities annually in order to ensure their compliance
with the world-class standards on physical infrastructure and communications.
||Putrajaya and Cyberjaya together are
projected to have a population of 500,000 by year 2020. The impact
of the MSC is expected on employment and population. The principal
outcome of the MSC will be a faster growth of jobs and population
for KLC and for the country as a whole. The growth in global activities
is likely to mean a faster migration rate of foreigners especially
of those with specialised skills. The Citys activities will
be stimulated by the development within the MSC via consumption and
production linkages and the growth in the export of services.
||While the successful development of
the MSC is likely to see a net increase in the job growth within Kuala
Lumpur, this in itself is no guarantee that rapid out-migration from
the City will ceased. An effective policy to induce more
people, especially those in the higher income and skill categories,
to live within the City is necessary to minimize or reverse net out-migration.
||The global orientation and world-class
status of the MSC is vital in determining the vision and orientation
for the future development of the City and the entire KLC.
function of Kuala Lumpur and its conurbation
||Kuala Lumpurs principal functions
will be redefined as a consequence of the MSC, the relocation of federal
government administrative functions to Putrajaya and the wide range
of city functions and activities that are now part of the KLC. Furthermore,
as the proportion of built-up land area and population of Kuala Lumpur
in relation to that of the entire KLC, the role of Kuala Lumpur is
likely to be increasingly specialised. The City must focus on developing
its strengths in the top-end services and manufacturing industries
to enable them to operate within larger market catchments on an international,
national and subnational scale.
||The core urban functions will continue
to be located within the city centre of Kuala Lumpur. Thus the headquarters
of transnational companies, the top end hotels and shopping outlets,
recreational and entertainment centres will be located in the city
centre, as will specialised training facilities, professional services
and specialist medical
services. In addition, Kuala Lumpur will also be a focus for the development
of knowledge-based and high value added manufacturing industries.
As the capital of the nation, Kuala Lumpur will continue to house
the major knowledge-based institutions, religious and cultural facilities.
Befitting their international and national status, these
institutions and facilities must be enhanced considerably.
||Figure 2.3 illustrates a functional
pyramid for the KLC with more specialised urban functions towards
the apex of the pyramid, which represents Kuala Lumpur, and more general
functions towards its base, representing the remainder of the KLC.
Figure 2.3: Function of Kuala Lumpur and Its Conurbation