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Kuala Lumpur Structure Plan 2020



1 Introduction

2 International and National Context of Growth
  2.1 Introduction
  2.2 The Global Trend
    2.2.1 The Globalisation Process
    2.2.2 The knowledge-based economy
    2.2.3 Agenda 21
  2.3 The national perspective
  2.4 The sub-national context
    2.4.1 The Klang Valley Region
    2.4.2 Kuala Lumpur and its conurbation
    2.4.3 The Multimedia Super Corridor
  2.5 The function of Kuala Lumpur and its conurbation

3 Vision and Goals of Kuala Lumpur

4 Economic Base and Population

5 Income and Quality of Life

6 Land Use and Development Strategy

7 Commerce

8 Tourism

9 Industry

10 Transportation

11 Infrastructure and Utilities

12 Housing

13 Community Facilities

14 Urban Design and Landscape

15 Environment

16 Special Areas

17 Strategic Zone

18 Implementation



2.1 Introduction

14. Being the premier city and the capital of a nation with a highly trade oriented economy that aspires to be fully developed by the year 2020, Kuala Lumpur’s vision, goals, functions and growth must be seen both from the national and the broader global perspective, especially within the context of development of the Asia Pacific Region.

2.2 The Global Trend
 2.2.1  The Globalisation Process

15. The decline in trade barriers, the vast improvements in transportation and communication systems and networks over the last few decades have enhanced the volume of international trade in goods and services. Accompanying these are the enhanced international mobility of human resources, short and long-term capital and the growth in the number, strength and influence of transnational companies
16. The world economy has consequently become more integrated and global in nature. Major economic activities especially manufacturing have become more dispersed globally as processes within the production chain of increasingly more complex consumer and capital goods move to places that offer the best competitive advantage.
17. The global dispersion of production and marketing activities of transnational companies requires the global dispersal of management, control and support. This is achieved by the establishment of regional headquarters offices in strategically located cities which can offer suitable infrastructure, supporting services, living environment and other
ancillary activities. Many cities that have assumed an important role by providing a base for the efficient conduct of international business have attained the status of ‘global’ or ‘world’ cities. Examples of top ranked global city are London, New York, Paris and Tokyo. Others that play more of a regional or sub global role within the Asia Pacific Region (refer Figure 2.1) are cities such as Hong Kong, Singapore and Sydney.

Photo 2.1
: … the premier city and the capital of a nation with a highly trade oriented economy...

 2.2.2  The knowledge-based economy

18. In addition to the globalisation trend, another factor that is and will influence the growth of the nation and that of Kuala Lumpur is the increase in the importance of the knowledge-based economic activities especially those relating to the development of information and communication technology (ICT).
19. Industries that generate knowledge such as research and development in biotechnology, computer software multimedia applications, new technology for the computer and other hardware and industries that process, distribute and manage information such as educational institutions, telecommunication and Internet systems, advertising and professional services are the key drivers of the Knowledge-Based Economy (K-Economy).

 2.2.3  Agenda 21

20. Agenda 21, a comprehensive programme for action relating to sustainable development, was adopted at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (the Earth Summit) in Rio de Janeiro in 1992. A fundamental tenet of Agenda 21 is that development must be sustainable, that is, it must be able to meet the needs of the current generation without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. The strategy of sustainable development is one, by which communities seek economic development approaches that benefit the local environment and, at the same time, enhance the quality of life.
21. Local Agenda 21 grew out of Agenda 21 and is aimed at forging a partnership between local authorities and the public they serve, so that they may work together to plan and care for their surroundings within the context of sustainability.

 Figure 2.1: Asia Pacific Region

2.3 The national perspective

22. Vision 2020 identifies globalisation as one of the major underlying ‘mega trends’ which Malaysia must follow in order to ensure a sound basis for economic development, a view further emphasised by the Third Outline Perspective Plan (OPP3, 2001- 2010) and Second Industrial Master Plan (1996- 2005). While Kuala Lumpur may not aspire to join the top rank of global cities within the foreseeable future, as the nation’s premier city, it must adopt
23. Industries and services that have a high export potential are those which are needed to provide the impetus towards globalisation. High technology and high skilled industries, together with finance, transportation, tourism, business, information and professional services shopping and other commercial activities, are the principal components of the nation’s economy, which must be developed to a level well beyond where it is now. In this respect, Kuala Lumpur being the premier city must play the leading role.
24. Kuala Lumpur and its conurbation (KLC) (refer Figure 2.2) is already being prepared to play a global role. The KLIA is being promoted as a regional hub for air travel while concerted efforts are being made to develop Port Klang as a major trans-shipment port for Malaysia and the region. Similarly the development of the Multimedia Super Corridor (MSC) together with the continuous and progressive liberalisation of the trade and finance sectors, reinforces the aim of giving Kuala Lumpur and its conurbation a greater global orientation.

Photo 2.2
: Kuala Lumpur and its conurbation is already being prepared to play a global role.

   Figure: 2.2

   Kuala Lumpur And Its Conurbation

2.4 The sub-national context
 2.4.1  The Klang Valley Region

25. The growth of the City of Kuala Lumpur must also be seen from the narrower sub-national perspective. At the time of the KLSP 1984, the Klang Valley Region was the sub-national context within which the growth of Kuala Lumpur was determined. However, major new developments outside it, in particular the KLIA, Putrajaya and Cyberjaya, have rendered the concept of the Klang Valley Region as a sub-national planning entity far less relevant.

 2.4.2  Kuala Lumpur and its conurbation

26. A more appropriate term of reference for Kuala Lumpur’s sub-national context is the Kuala Lumpur and its conurbation (KLC). The KLC refers to the entire Klang Valley Region as originally defined by the Klang Valley Study (1972) together with much of the Kuala Langat district and the remaining part of the Sepang district where the KLIA is located. It covers a total area of approximately 4,000 square kilometres, which is about 40 percent larger than
the size of the Klang Valley Region of 2,843 square kilometres.
27. The KLC is one large urban entity which incorporates the complete range of urban functions. However, it is important to distinguish between Kuala Lumpur, which is an administrative unit and the much larger KLC which represents the total urban entity within which Kuala Lumpur is located and functions in many ways as the nucleus of the KLC. Kuala Lumpur’s role, status and specific functions within the overall KLC must be defined within the context of the wider total urban entity. Similarly, in view of their symbiotic relationship, the planning of Kuala Lumpur must take full account of developments in the KLC as a whole.
28. Since the KLSP 1984, the other urban centres in the Klang Valley Region, notably Petaling Jaya, Shah Alam and Subang Jaya, have grown at a rate that far outstrips that of the City. There has been strong in-migration to the KLC outside Kuala Lumpur from all over the country and net out-migration from Kuala Lumpur into residential areas located outside the City. In the year 2000, the population of Kuala Lumpur was approximately 1.42 million compared to 4.30 million for the whole of the KLC, a population distribution pattern not envisaged by the KLSP 1984.
29. As the MSC, especially Putrajaya and Cyberjaya grow, so will the proportion of the total built-up area in the KLC compared to Kuala Lumpur. This decline in the relative size of Kuala Lumpur, in terms of population and built-up area, underlines the importance of defining the functions of the Kuala Lumpur within the context of the KLC.
30. Currently, planning and development coordination in the Klang Valley is undertaken by the Klang Valley Planning Council and Klang Valley Working Committee. In line with the expansion of Kuala Lumpur and its conurbation planning areas, the jurisdiction of these bodies need to be reviewed and detailed.
31. Issues that need to be highlighted at the regional planning level relate to aspects on physical, socio-economic and spiritual development such as coordination on functions of growth centres in Kuala Lumpur and its conurbation, environmental management, planning and development of industries, transportation networks, distribution of
community facilities, cemeteries, flood mitigation, waste collection and disposal as well as the human and community development.

 2.4.3  The Multimedia Super Corridor

32. KLC that will have the most profound implication on the growth, function and development policies and strategies for Kuala Lumpur is the development of the Multimedia Super Corridor (MSC). MSC is a corridor with dimensions 50 x 15 kilometres, stretching from the KLIA in the south to Kuala Lumpur City Centre (KLCC) in the north. The MSC corridor comprises two strategic centres, namely Cyberjaya as the multimedia centre and Putrajaya as the administrative centre. Besides, there are also six main centres i.e. the Airport City as a service centre for the KLIA development, Siber Village for small and medium industrial development, High-Tech Village for high industrial technological development, Tele-Suburb for smart housing and educational, and R&D centre for academic institution and corporate research and development.
33. There are 5 cyber cities in the MSC where companies with MSC status can locate their business premises. The Cyber City comprises KLCC, Kuala Lumpur Tower, Technology Park Malaysia, Universiti Putra Malaysia - Malaysia Technology Development Corporation (UPM-MTDC) and Cyberjaya. Multimedia Development Corporation (MDC) will
audit all cyber cities annually in order to ensure their compliance with the world-class standards on physical infrastructure and communications.
34. Putrajaya and Cyberjaya together are projected to have a population of 500,000 by year 2020. The impact of the MSC is expected on employment and population. The principal outcome of the MSC will be a faster growth of jobs and population for KLC and for the country as a whole. The growth in global activities is likely to mean a faster migration rate of foreigners especially of those with specialised skills. The City’s activities will be stimulated by the development within the MSC via consumption and production linkages and the growth in the export of services.
35. While the successful development of the MSC is likely to see a net increase in the job growth within Kuala Lumpur, this in itself is no guarantee that rapid out-migration from the City will ceased. An effective policy to induce more
people, especially those in the higher income and skill categories, to live within the City is necessary to minimize or reverse net out-migration.
36. The global orientation and ‘world-class’ status of the MSC is vital in determining the vision and orientation for the future development of the City and the entire KLC.

2.5 The function of Kuala Lumpur and its conurbation

37. Kuala Lumpur’s principal functions will be redefined as a consequence of the MSC, the relocation of federal government administrative functions to Putrajaya and the wide range of city functions and activities that are now part of the KLC. Furthermore, as the proportion of built-up land area and population of Kuala Lumpur declines
in relation to that of the entire KLC, the role of Kuala Lumpur is likely to be increasingly specialised. The City must focus on developing its strengths in the top-end services and manufacturing industries to enable them to operate within larger market catchments on an international, national and subnational scale.
38. The core urban functions will continue to be located within the city centre of Kuala Lumpur. Thus the headquarters of transnational companies, the top end hotels and shopping outlets, recreational and entertainment centres will be located in the city centre, as will specialised training facilities, professional services and specialist medical
services. In addition, Kuala Lumpur will also be a focus for the development of knowledge-based and high value added manufacturing industries. As the capital of the nation, Kuala Lumpur will continue to house the major knowledge-based institutions, religious and cultural facilities. Befitting their international and national status, these
institutions and facilities must be enhanced considerably.
39. Figure 2.3 illustrates a ‘functional pyramid’ for the KLC with more specialised urban functions towards the apex of the pyramid, which represents Kuala Lumpur, and more general functions towards its base, representing the remainder of the KLC.

Figure 2.3: Function of Kuala Lumpur and Its Conurbation