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Kuala Lumpur Structure Plan 2020

Preface

Acknowledgement

1 Introduction

2 International and National Context of Growth

3 Vision and Goals of Kuala Lumpur

4 Economic Base and Population

5 Income and Quality of Life

6 Land Use and Development Strategy
  6.1 Introduction
  6.2 Existing situation and issue
    6.2.1 Land use1984-2000
    6.2.2 Land availability
  6.3 Evaluation of the achievement of the KLSP 1984 Development Strategy
    6.3.1 General
    6.3.2 Central Planning Area (CPA)
    6.3.3 New growth areas
    6.3.4 Existing development areas
    6.3.5 Transportation
  6.4 Development strategy
    6.4.1 General
    6.4.2 Enhance the working, living and business environment of the city centre
    6.4.3 Designate and develop international zones
    6.4.4 Designate and implement comprehensive development areas
    6.4.5 Encourage and facilitate the development of Malay Reservation areas, traditional kampungs and new villages
    6.4.6 Initiate and implement the redevelopment of blighted areas
    6.4.7 Ensure complete and integrated city linkages
    6.4.8 Provide priority and incentives to development and areas around transit terminals
    6.4.9 Ensure the functional distribution of urban centres and facilities
    6.4.10 Consolidate the development and enhance the environment of stable areas
    6.4.11 Consolidate the development and enhance the environment of major entry points
  6.5 The key plan

7 Commerce

8 Tourism

9 Industry

10 Transportation

11 Infrastructure and Utilities

12 Housing

13 Community Facilities

14 Urban Design and Landscape

15 Environment

16 Special Areas

17 Strategic Zone

18 Implementation

Abbreviations

Glossary

FAQ
6.1 Introduction

125. The development strategies for the next 20 years are focused on the vision for Kuala Lumpur to become a World-Class City. The strategies are also firmly grounded on the direction and accomplishments of the KLSP 1984 that set the framework for the structure and present growth patterns of Kuala Lumpur. The physical shape of Kuala Lumpur, the distribution of land uses, the new growth areas, infrastructure development especially roads and rail systems are all directly attributable to the policies and strategies set out in the KLSP 1984.
126. The population base of Kuala Lumpur is set to increase from 1.4 million to 2.2 million over the next 20 years. Within the context of a city that is already well-developed new strategies that optimize limited land resources need to be devised. This Plan is part of the ongoing evolution of the City and the development strategies set out here form the basis for the planned spatial development of Kuala Lumpur as well as guiding the formation of sectoral policies up to the year 2020.
127. The strategies are all encompassing and cover every aspect of the City fabric from spatial and infrastructural development to urban design and the less tangible qualities of the City experience that shape and mould people’s perception of the City and their place within it.

6.2 Existing situation and issue
 6.2.1  Land use 1984 - 2000

128. Table 6.1 indicates the existing land uses by sector while Table 6.2, Table 6.3 and Table 6.4 indicate the changes in land use between 1984 and 2000. The land use specialisation index in these tables indicates the relative importance of a particular land use in relation to the City as a whole for each of the planning units designated in the KLSP 1984 (refer Figure 6.1).
 

Table 6.1: Land Use by Category, 2000

 a)  Residential
 i.  Existing situation

129. Residential land use increased from 3,822 hectares to 5,490 hectares between 1984 and 2000 and is the largest land use component in the City. The majority of increases in residential land use have been in the growth areas of Wangsa Maju and Bandar Tun Razak, whereas Bukit Jalil has yet to establish its residential base. Major established residential land use areas are in Damansara, Bukit Indah, Setapak and Sentul.
130. However, residential land use in the City Centre has declined significantly between 1984 and 2000 and now accounts only for 26.4 percent of the total residential land use in 1984.

 ii.  Issue

  • Decline in residential land use in the City Centre; and
• Slow growth of residential land use in Bukit Jalil.
 

Figure 6.1: Land use, 2000
 

Table 6.2: Land Use Change in Residential, Commercial and Industrial, 1984 - 2000
 

Table 6.3: Land Use Change in Institutional, Open Space Recreational and Sports Facilities and Community Facilities, 1984 - 2000
 

Table 6.4: Land Use Change in Undeveloped Land, Squatters, Infrastructure and Utilities, 1984 - 2000

 b)  Commercial
 i.  Existing situation

 

Photo 6.1: ...residential land use in the City Centre has declined
significantly...
131. Commercial land use growth has been significant, increasing by 116.5 percent from 504 hectares to 1,092 hectares between 1984 and 2000. Although there has been some dispersal of commercial land over Kuala Lumpur as a whole, the City Centre continues to be by far the most important commercial location in Kuala Lumpur accounting for 25.2 percent of the current total commercial land use.
132. The growth areas of Wangsa Maju and Bandar Tun Razak have had respectable increase in commercial land use which is in accordance with the objectives of the KLSP 1984. However, Damansara has had moderate growth in commercial land use and Bukit Jalil has only developed marginally. It is significant that of the four growth areas, only Wangsa Maju has a specialisation index in respect of commercial land use greater than 1.0. There has however, been significant growth in commercial land use outside the designated growth areas, in particular in Sentul, Bukit Indah, Jinjang and Seputeh.

 ii.  Issue

  • Preponderance of commercial land use in the City Centre; and
• Commercial growth outside the designated growth areas.

 c)  Industrial
 i.  Existing situation

133. The industrial component of land use is relatively minor and has increased from 475 hectares in 1984 to 553 hectares in 2000. Most of the industrial land use is distributed in Jinjang, Sentul, Bukit Indah and Maluri, which all grew during the period. Industrial land use also grew in the new growth areas of Wangsa Maju and Bandar Tun Razak and there has been a significant increase in Bukit Jalil because of the Malaysia Technology Park.
134. Many of the older industrial areas are in a dilapidated state, for example, Chan Sow Lin and areas along Jalan Klang Lama.

 ii.  Issue

  • Dilapidated industrial areas.

 d)  Institutional
 i.  Existing situation

135. Institutional land use which includes government land and military reserve land has decreased by 12.5 percent from 1,852 hectares in 1984 to 1,621 hectares in 2000 and currently accounts for 6.7 percent of the total land use. Most of this land is located in Sungai Besi Military Camp, Batu Cantonment, Sungai Besi Royal Malaysian Air Force Base, Ministry of Defence Complex (MINDEF) of Jalan Padang Tembak and the federal government complexes at Jalan Duta and Mahameru Highway.

 ii.  Issue

  • Future use of buildings and lands formerly occupied by federal government offices.

 e)  Open space, recreational and sports facilities
 i.  Existing situation

136. Open space, recreational and sports facilities land use includes city park, district park, neighbourhood park, local park, local play area, sports complex, golf course, polo field and as well as forest reserves. Total open space, recreational and sport facilities land use has increased significantly by 169.6 percent from 586 hectares in 1984 to 1,580 hectares in 2000, although there has been a steady decline in public open space in the City Centre largely because of conversion to other uses.
137. Major open spaces in the City Centre comprise the public open spaces of Taman Tasik Perdana, Bukit Nanas and the Kuala Lumpur City Centre Park (KLCC) totalling 301 hectares. Penchala contains the largest amount of open space, recreational and sport facilities totalling 486 hectares comprising mainly the Bukit Kiara Botanical Garden, Bukit Kiara Equestrian Park, Kiara West Valley Park, Kuala Lumpur Golf and Country Club (KLGCC) and Malaysia Civil Service Golf Club. The development of the National Sports Complex, International Park, Botanical Park and Berjaya Golf Course at Bukit Jalil, together with the district park of Taman Tasik Permaisuri at Bandar Tun Razak have contributed to the significant increase in open space in these growth areas.
138. However, open space, recreational and sport facilities only represents 6.5 percent of total land use, and the amount that is available as public open space is even less when private open spaces such as golf courses are excluded.

 ii.  Issue

  • Decline in open space in the City Centre; and
• Shortage of public open space.
 

Photo 6.2: Shortage of public open space.

 f)  Community facilities
 i.  Existing situation

139. Total land use for community facilities, which includes land for cemeteries and public, educational and religious facilities, stands at 1,382 hectares or 5.7 percent of total land use. The four main tertiary institutions; Universiti Malaya, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Kolej Tunku Abdul Rahman and Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia occupy the major proportion of land use in this category, together with several large tracts of centralized cemetery areas, particularly in Seputeh, Bandar Tun Razak and the City Centre.
140. Many of the local centres in older residential areas have been developed without adequate provision of community facilities such as community halls, markets, mosques, cemeteries and libraries. Consequently, there are some difficulties in finding sites for these facilities that are easily accessible to the residential population.

 ii.  Issue

  • Shortage of suitable sites for community facilities.

 g)  Undeveloped land
 i.  Existing situation

141. Undeveloped land includes agriculture, vacant land, former mining land, nurseries excluding nurseries that are ancillary to major parks, shrub and bushes. The total amount of undeveloped land now stands at 5,757 hectares or 23.8 percent of total land use. However, much of this land occurs in small pockets that do not lend themselves to large-scale development.
142. Kuala Lumpur has almost exhausted its supply of government owned green-field sites. The new growth areas are almost fully developed with the remaining undeveloped land mostly held under private ownership.

 ii.  Issue

  • Shortage of undeveloped land.

 h)  Squatters
 i.  Existing situation

143. Squatter settlements consist of residential, commercial and industrial activities, presently occupying approximately 571 hectares or 2.4 percent of total land use.

 ii.  Issue

  • Issues relating to squatters are covered in Chapter 12.

 i)  Infrastructure and utilities
 i.  Existing situation

144. There has been a 5.7 percent decline in this category of land use from 6,551 hectares to 6,177 hectares between 1984 and 2000. However, there has been an increase in road reserve due to the major road building programmes implemented as a consequence of the KLSP 1984. There has also been some increase though not significant in the rail reserve due to the development of Light Rapid Transit systems (LRT), the alignment of which mostly running in the existing river, road and rail reserves.
145. A large portion of the land that has been set aside as utility reserves, especially for electricity transmission lines are under-utilised.

 ii.  Issue

  • Under utilisation of utility reserves.
 

Photo 6.3: Under utilisation of utility reserves.

 6.2.2  Land Availability

146. Land available for future requirements constitutes three types i.e. undeveloped land, under developed and old dilapidated areas and land which has been given approval for development. In the year 2000, potential land for development has been estimated at about 5,004 hectares, comprising 2,440 hectares of undeveloped land, 1,496 hectares of dilapidated areas identified for redevelopment and 1,067 hectares of land which has been granted approval for residential and commercial development.
147. Undeveloped land does not have any established use or permanent structures and can be developed immediately or in the near future. The under developed areas associated with squatters and long houses, old and dilapidated development in traditional and new villages or Malay Reservation Areas, have been identified for redevelopment or renewal. Land belonging to the government and unalienated land (state land) shall be reserved specifically for public or government purposes.
148. From a total land area at about 7,298 hectares which has been granted approval for development for the period 1995 to 2000, only about 2,566 hectares were approved for residential and commercial development. It is assumed that a significant number of those granted approval, may not proceed at all as the supply of building units coming on to the market will depend on a favourable economic climate. CHKL will need to review the approved development in the light of the development strategies. Special attention will be paid to the approved commercial projects particularly those in the City Centre. (refer Table 6.5).
 

Table 6.5: Potential Land for Development, 2000

6.3 Evaluation of the achievement of the KLSP 1984 Development Strategy

149. The KLSP 1984 development strategy was based on the concept of a hierarchy of urban centres in order to achieve balanced growth across the City. Whilst the Central Planning Area (the City Centre) would still maintain its role and function as the business and commercial core of Kuala Lumpur, four new growth areas were proposed namely Wangsa Maju, Bandar Tun Razak, Bukit Jalil and Damansara to decentralize future housing and employment. Each growth area was to be self-sufficient in terms of residential population and employment opportunities. Planned population in the range of 120,000 to 140,000 people were to be complemented by employment of between 72,000 to 90,000 jobs. In parallel, local centres throughout the City would be consolidated to service neighbourhood population. It was envisaged that a direct benefit of this strategy would be the increased use of public transport and reduction in private vehicle usage in the City Centre. Large tracts of undeveloped land within the City provided the opportunity to develop the new growth areas.

 6.3.1  General
 i.  Existing situation

150. The present population of Kuala Lumpur stands at 1.4 million although the KLSP 1984 had anticipated a population of 2.2 million by the year 2000. Many people have chosen to locate out of the City because of the availability of more affordable housing in the other urban and suburban areas in the KLC. Employment targets have also not been met as new employment opportunities have arisen outside the City.

 ii.  Issue

  • Population and employment targets as projected in KLSP 1984 have not been achieved.

 6.3.2  Central Planning Area (CPA)
 i.  Existing situation

151. The strategy to relieve some of the pressures on the CPA by directing more growth to the new growth areas has not been entirely successful. Commercial development has continued to increase in the CPA while residential development and open space have both declined significantly. Land for commercial use has been mainly obtained due to the rezoning of residential land.
152. As a consequence of the intensification of commercial development in the CPA and the outmigration of the residential population, private vehicle commuting into the CPA has increased, thus putting additional pressure on the road infrastructure.

 ii.  Issue

  • Decline in residential component; and
• Increase in commercial component.

 6.3.3  New growth areas
 i.  Existing situation

153. The strategy to accelerate development of the growth areas of Wangsa Maju, Bandar Tun Razak, Bukit Jalil and Damansara has been a qualified success. Three of these growth areas namely Wangsa Maju, Bandar Tun Razak and Damansara have reached maturity and, except for their district centres, have achieved their planned targets. However, Bukit Jalil is in the early stages of growth with respect to residential, cultural, hightech industrial development and its district centre has yet to be properly developed. None of the growth areas have fully achieved their intended status of becoming self-sufficient townships.

 ii.  Issue

  • Slow development of district centres at Wangsa Maju and Bandar Tun Razak; and
• Slow progress of development at Bukit Jalil.

 6.3.4  Existing development areas
 i.  Existing situation

154. Development strategies for the remainder of Kuala Lumpur were directed at providing sufficient land to accommodate mainly retail services and local level public services for the immediate population. The strategies have met with only limited success and some areas suffer from the under provision of conveniently accessible utilities and
facilities.
155. Existing centres have not consolidated into neighbourhood or district service centres as development has favoured new centres at the expense of upgrading older and established residential areas.

 ii.  Issue

  • Uneven distribution of utilities and facilities; and
• Development has favoured new areas at the expense of upgrading older established residential areas.

 6.3.5  Transportation
 i.  Existing situation

156. The KLSP 1984 set out a comprehensive transportation strategy aimed at promoting bus and rail public transportation as well as providing a comprehensive road network to disperse traffic away from the CPA. The LRT system, which was a central element of the public transport strategy, has been successfully completed and the road network has almost been completed virtually unchanged from the original proposals.
157. However, the primary objective of achieving a significant modal shift from private to public transportation has not been achieved mainly because of the lack of integration between the various modes of public transportation and between land use planning and the rail-based public transport network.

 ii.  Issue

  • Lack of integration between the various modes of public transportation; and
• Lack of integration between land use planning and rail-based public transport network.

6.4 Development strategy
 6.4.1  General

158. The development strategies that have been developed are firmly founded on the principles and successes of the KLSP 1984. It is essential that these principles are maintained since much of the planned and implemented infrastructure of the City; its roads, railways and other utilities are already in place.
159. Additional initiatives, however, have been integrated into the Plan in order to make it more effective and more responsive to the modern day needs of the City and its inhabitants and to inject a new dynamism.
160. The strategy of balanced growth across the City, a fundamental principle of the KLSP 1984, will be maintained and the hierarchy of urban centres consisting of the CPA and the four new growth areas will be retained and refined. Measures shall be introduced to consolidate these centres and enhance their amenity value to the community as well as to extend the functions of urban centres and improve accessibility. To reinforce these measures, a strong emphasis shall be placed on integrating development and public transportation strategies.
161. Strategies are introduced which are directed towards improving the living environment of the City to a level commensurate with that available in other world-class cities. These shall include the enhancement of the natural and built environment and the quality of housing and working environment. Better sports, recreational, entertainment, cultural and community facilities shall be provided and complemented by an integrated transportation system and high quality infrastructure.
162. New strategies shall also be implemented to initiate projects that will stimulate the economic life of the City and promote its image as an international commercial and financial centre. Due to the lack of sizeable greenfield sites available for development, these projects will build on the strengths of existing developed areas or make use of dilapidated areas requiring revitalisation.
163. Ten development strategies that will guide development policies for the next 20 years are summarised below:

• Enhance the working, living and business environment of the City Centre;
• Designate and develop International Zones;
• Designate and implement Comprehensive Development Areas (CDAs);
• Encourage and facilitate the development of Malay Reservation Areas, traditional kampungs and new villages;
• Initiate and implement the redevelopment of blighted areas;
• Ensure complete and integrated city linkages;
• Provide priority and incentives to development in areas around transit terminals;
• Ensure the functional distribution of centres and facilities;
• Consolidate the development and enhance the environment of stable areas; and
• Consolidate the development and enhance the environment of major entry points.
164. These strategies and their underlying principles are described in greater detail below (refer Figure 6.2 and Figure 6.3).

 6.4.2  Enhance the working, living and business environment of the city centre

165. The City Centre, formerly known as the Central Planning Area in the KLSP 1984 is the heart of the City. The City Centre is the focus of local, national and international attention and, for many, defines the image of Kuala Lumpur. The City Centre epitomises the aspirations of its inhabitants and the vision of Kuala Lumpur to be A World-Class City. This strategy aims to create a complete living environment in the inner city that provides the very best business and working environment together with a vibrant commercial, financial and entertainment centres.
166. Particular emphasis shall be placed on attracting more people to live in the City Centre. This will reduce dependence on private transport, as more people will be able to travel directly to work either on foot or by public transport. A consequence of this strategy will be to create an increased liveliness in the City Centre as more people populate its streets outside the normal business period. Commercial and entertainment enterprises also benefit from the increased residential population.
 

Photo 6.4: The strategy aims to create a complete living inner city environment that provides the very best business and working environment together with a vibrant commercial and entertainment centre.
167. In order not to exacerbate problems of oversupply of commercial spaces in the City Centre as well as to encourage greater dispersal of commercial spaces to the other urban centres, the KLSP 1984 strategy of maintaining moderate
growth in the City Centre shall be continued. Land uses which are no longer in keeping with the projected role of the City Centre as an international commercial and financial centre shall be reviewed and redesignated, thus releasing more land for commercial and residential uses and also for compatible non-commercial use that can improve the living environment of the City Centre.
168. A greater diversity of economic activity shall be encouraged in the City Centre particularly in the fields of tourism, healthcare and higher education. This diversification will help to expand the City’s revenue base and reduce its susceptibility to fluctuations in certain commercial sectors.
169. Centres of activities need to be reintegrated and their connections enhanced. Pedestrian movement in particular shall be given priority over private vehicular traffic and comprehensive pedestrian networks shall be created affording comfortable and convenient access to transportation nodes and activity centres so as to reduce reliance on private transport.
170. Urban design guidelines shall be developed and progressively implemented throughout the City Centre which will ameliorate the living environment, create or regenerate connections, both physical and experiential, and develop a unique and discernible identity for the City. Streetscapes shall be harmonised and plazas and pocket parks introduced to add texture and continuity to the external environment of the City Centre.
 

Figure 6.2: Developmet Strategy Plan (1)
 


Figure 6.3: Developmet Strategy Plan (2)

 6.4.3  Designate and develop international zones

171. A world-class city must be able to attract the highest calibre of expertise, both local and overseas, to live as well as work in the City. Areas with activities of international relevance and appeal, incorporating attractive living environment shall be developed to provide high quality facilities in terms of education, shopping, recreation and entertainment. The quality of existing facilities and utilities shall be improved to cater for the needs of expatriates and local residents.
172. In addition to being high quality residential districts, the International Zones shall also be developed as high-end employment centres specialising in ICT or high skills technology. Commercial activities that cater to the needs and tastes of the international market shall be encouraged and precincts which specialise in international cuisine and culture shall be designated and developed.
173. Three areas have been designated zones of international relevance and appeal namely Damansara, Ampang/U-Thant and Bukit Jalil. Each zone will be able to provide its own uniquely attractive living environment to appeal to the differing requirements of international residents from the well established and exclusive low-rise residences of Damansara to the new high-rise condominiums of Bukit Jalil.
174. The eastern part of Damansara and western part of Jalan Ampang/Jalan U-Thant shall complement the activities of the City Centre, providing established high quality living environments conveniently accessible to the central business district. The southern zone at Bukit Jalil shall serve as a bridge between the City and the MSC high tech areas to the south. The character of each zone shall be developed so as to preserve and enhance their own individual locational strengths and existing character and amenity.
175. The areas located between KL Sentral and Telekom Tower, being part of Damansara - Penchala International Zone, provide a wide range of facilities such as hotels, offices, shopping centres and a regional transportation hub catering for international and regional markets.
 

Photo 6.5: ...an attractive living environment shall be developed to provide high quality facilities in terms of education, shopping, recreation and entertainment.

 6.4.4  Designate and implement comprehensive development areas

176. As the premier city of the nation, Kuala Lumpur will be the torchbearer for Malaysian industry and entrepreneurship, and new initiatives shall be implemented that reinforce the national development plans.
177. Two major Comprehensive Development Areas (CDAs) have been identified which will showcase and provide an impetus for the promotion and development of Malaysian industry and commerce. The two CDAs are Kampong Bharu, the Malay Reservation Area in the heart of the City Centre and the federal government complexes at Jalan Duta to the west of the City Centre.
178. The CDAs shall be comprehensively planned and developed as integrated mixed developments comprising residential, commercial and industrial uses and will include utilities and facilities that are commensurate with their residential populations. Each of the CDAs shall also be served by transit terminals that will be connected to key activities in the area and around which district centres shall be developed.

 6.4.5  Encourage and facilitate the development of Malay Reservation areas,
 traditional kampungs and new villages

179. While pursuing its vision to be ‘A World- Class City’, it is essential that Kuala Lumpur does not lose sight of its unique character and cultural heritage. In particular, the Malay Reservation Areas (MRAs), traditional kampungs and new villages, besides being of great historical importance in the development of Kuala Lumpur and the nation, also
preserve a cultural continuum by maintaining traditional customs and ways of life.
180. However, these areas were created under circumstances that are no longer relevant to their present urban context. The layout, pattern of land ownership and basic infrastructural provision reflect their original land use as predominantly agricultural smallholdings. Consequently, these areas are characterised by poor infrastructure and a
deteriorating urban fabric that lags far behind the rest of the City. In order to make sure that these areas can survive and contribute to the life of the City, measures need to be taken to encourage and facilitate residential and commercial developments.
181. Community facilities shall be upgraded and basic infrastructure and utility networks improved. New development in these areas shall reflect the values of their respective communities. For example, in order to encourage continuity in the residential communities, the concept of extended family housing shall be developed.
182. Innovative ways shall be devised to encourage entrepreneurship and bring prosperity to the areas. Commercial activities will be encouraged that emphasise the development and promotion of cottage industries specialising in
traditional goods and handicrafts, in tandem with the development of modern products, services and trades that benefit the communities.
183. Home stay and eco-tourism in particular could well appeal to both domestic and international tourists who wish to experience a taste of traditional ways of life. CHKL shall encourage and assist in the development of tourist support facilities as well as in tourist promotion both locally and internationally.
184. Buildings, areas and sites that have a particular historical or cultural significance within the context of their community shall be conserved. Similarly, new development and streetscape projects incorporating architectural motifs reflecting ethnic and cultural character shall be encouraged. Landscaping shall also make use of indigenous
trees and plants that are especially evocative of Malaysia’s tropical environment.
185. These areas have traditionally had a strong sense of identity and community. Efforts shall be made to encourage collective development to be undertaken by the community for mutual benefits. As these close-knit communities best understand their own needs, it is desirable that the impetus for development comes from them. CHKL shall facilitate the establishment of community corporations to direct and coordinate development. Expertise and assistance shall be provided to expedite the progress of development and infrastructural improvement.

 6.4.6  Initiate and implement the redevelopment of blighted areas

186. Some areas of the City due to neglect over a period of time, have become dilapidated. In most cases, large-scale redevelopment would be difficult due to small size sub-divided lots and multiple ownership. A longer term approach, which aims at a gradual regeneration without essentially changing the characteristics of these areas, is to be adopted.
187. CHKL shall prepare long-term comprehensive development plans and guidelines which will be implemented over the period. Improvement to basic infrastructure such as roads, utilities and drainage shall be the initial priority and, as opportunities present themselves, improvements to other amenities and community facilities shall also be implemented. These measures will combine to help regenerate dilapidated areas and encourage more private redevelopment to take place within proper planning and urban design guidelines.
188. Some of these areas are among the oldest parts of the City and contain buildings and sites that are of historical and cultural significance. These shall be identified in the comprehensive development plans and designated to be conservation areas. Other areas that have clear redevelopment potential could provide opportunities to cater for future urban needs that require public intervention. These too shall be identified and designated as part of the
comprehensive development plans.
189. The guidelines will emphasise the unique characteristics of each of the areas and ensure that development will be compatible with the surrounding areas. The manner in which the comprehensive development plans and guidelines
are implemented will ensure that the character and image of each area is retained and enhanced.
190. A phased urban renewal and development programme based on the comprehensive development plans shall be devised and implemented for each of the identified areas.

 6.4.7  Ensure complete and integrated city linkages

191. A world-class city of the 21st century must be one which is fully connected and integrated both physically and perceptually.
192. Of prime importance is physical connectivity in the form of a transportation system that enables the efficient movement of people and goods within and around the City. The existing road and rail transportation networks are comprehensive and well established and need now to be integrated. The railway transport network in the City comprises the Projek Usahasama Transit Ringan Automatik (PUTRA) and Sistem Transit Aliran Ringan (STAR) light rapid transit systems, Keretapi Tanah Melayu (KTM) commuter rail services together with the Express Rail Link (ERL) and the monorail or People Mover Rapid Transit (PRT) system. This comprehensive rail network links the City Centre
to the major centres within Kuala Lumpur, other neighbouring urban centres, Putrajaya and KLIA.
193. A comprehensive bus network shall be developed which is flexible and user responsive and properly integrated with the rail network. Pedestrian networks shall be established with particular emphasis on the City Centre and other
areas that provide connections to major transit nodes and activity centres. The increased convenience and flexibility of these measures will help to redirect people towards increased usage of public transportation with less reliance on private transportation.
 

Photo 6.6: …the form of a transportation system that enables the efficient movement of people and goods within and around the City.
194. Essential utilities such as electricity, water, sewerage and drainage shall be upgraded and comprehensively provided throughout the City. Together with the utility companies and agencies, CHKL shall ensure that these utilities are integrated and coordinated with one another in the future development plans. ICT infrastructure, which has become an essential utility of the 21st century, shall be incorporated into all new developments in the City and upgrading of existing areas shall be encouraged.
195. Linking together green spaces will encourage a diversity of flora and fauna to permeate into the heart of the City as well as helping to improve air quality and providing amenity to the citizens of Kuala Lumpur. The green network initiated by the KLSP 1984 shall be fully realised, linking major open spaces such as metropolitan parks, forestry reserves and lakes together with other open spaces such as cemeteries and golf courses by means of landscaped road, river, rail and utility reserve corridors.
196. Visual and perceptual linkages shall also be developed so as to improve the imageability of the City and to make it easier to orientate oneself within it. Views of the City skyline shall be accentuated from various critical parts of the
City and especially at its ‘gateway’ arrival points. Sites shall also be identified for future planned landmark buildings to further enhance the City skyline and facilitate orientation within and around the City.

 6.4.8  Provide priority and incentives to development in areas around transit terminals

197. To reinforce the strategy of providing complete and integrated transport linkages, more intensive development near to transit terminals shall be actively promoted.
198. Mixed-use development incorporating highdensity residential, high plot ratio commercial as well as community and business facilities shall be encouraged, thus greatly reducing reliance on private transportation by making accessibility flexible and convenient. Bus services shall be closely integrated with rail terminals and interchange facilities provided to facilitate fast, convenient and efficient transport. Pedestrian and traffic linkages, both within and
from outside these zones, shall be improved to provide more convenient access to the transit terminals.
199. Park-and-ride facilities shall be provided at interchanges on the perimeter of the City Centre, encouraging more people to use public transportation to access the City Centre. To further discourage private car usage in the City Centre, measures shall be introduced to reduce car parking provision and increase car parking charges. Other traffic
restraint measures such as restricted zones and area licensing schemes shall be considered.
200. By locating major community facilities near to major transit terminals, the effective catchment populations can be greatly increased, consequently permitting the consolidation and optimization of the usage of resources and facilities. Community facilities that are relevant to this strategy would be community centres, libraries and health facilities.

 6.4.9  Ensure the functional distribution of urban centres and facilities

201. A prime concern of the City must be that its urban centres and facilities are distributed in such a way that they are easily accessible to the majority of its population. To this end, a clear hierarchy of urban centres comprising the City
Centre, district centres and neighbourhood centres shall be defined. Appropriate functions and facilities shall be determined for each genre of centre according to their location, accessibility and catchment area or population (refer Table 6.6). Existing centres shall be consolidated and upgraded to meet the requirements of the local community.
202. District centres shall be designated at or close to LRT or KTM rail stations and development at these centres shall be intensified so that they benefit a greater number of people. Improved public transport accessibility shall be provided to existing district centres that do not have convenient railbased terminals. The feasibility of extending the rail network to serve these centres shall be examined. Neighbourhood centres shall, as far as possible, be located at or close to LRT or KTM rail stations and development at these centres shall also be intensified.
203. Community facilities shall be distributed and integrated into the various types of urban centres according to their intended catchment population. Larger and more sophisticated facilities such as public libraries shall be distributed to district centres that are well served by public transport. Other smaller facilities such as local play areas and football
fields that need to be more closely associated with residential neighbourhoods shall be distributed to the neighbourhood centres. Facilities that shall be ubiquitously provided such as ‘corner shops’, local play areas and neighbourhood watch booths should be associated with local centres.

 6.4.10  Consolidate the development and enhance the environment of stable areas

204. Much of Kuala Lumpur is virtually fully developed. Three of the four growth areas identified in the KLSP 1984; Wangsa Maju, Damansara and Bandar Tun Razak are now well established while other areas of the City have also stabilised and established their own distinct characters.
205. Some new highway projects have adversely affected the configuration of certain areas. Pedestrian and traffic patterns have become dislocated and communities disrupted as a consequence. In some cases, this has led to a
physical and social degeneration of the areas. Plans shall be drawn up to reconfigure these areas in order to help to regenerate and revitalise them.
 

Table 6.6: Hierarchy and Functions of Urban Centres
206. Elsewhere, development has occurred without due regard for the adequate provision of community facilities, utilities or, in some cases, infrastructure. A programme will be implemented to ensure that all areas are equipped with basic
infrastructural needs and have access to proper, up-to-date and well-maintained facilities.
207 In order to maintain a stable and sustainable city structure, a strategy shall be implemented which builds on the existing strengths of stable developed areas and improves their overall environment. This strategy will be one of minimal intervention sufficient to consolidate the fabric of these areas in order to improve cohesiveness and repair anomalies or shortcomings. Existing land uses in these stable areas shall be maintained and incompatible land uses eliminated. The intrinsic characteristics of stable areas in terms of their geophysical and built environment will be analysed and opportunities exploited to enhance their existing character and identity.
 

Photo 6.7: ... builds on the existing strengths of stable developed area and improves their overall environment.

 6.4.11  Consolidate the development and enhance the environment of major entry points

208. Kuala Lumpur is surrounded on all sides by suburban development and townships that blur the definition of its boundaries. This urban sprawl together with a lack of planning consistency on either side of the City boundary has diluted its image and often diminished or compromised Kuala Lumpur’s planning intentions.
209. Gateway zones shall be established at the primary and secondary entry points at the City boundary. The primary gateway zones will be those where the city perimeter intersects the major access roads into the City and from where views of the City skyline and landmarks are visible. These zones shall be emphasised so that they are consciously
perceived as the main points of arrival at the City and project the image of Kuala Lumpur as the nation’s prime commercial and financial centre as well as its high quality living and working environment. At all gateway zones, there shall be a clear definition between elements that are outside and those that are inside the city boundary.
210. Depending on the physical characteristics and functions of each of the gateway zones, an appropriate development character, scale and typology will be determined. In order to heighten the sense of arrival, utilities and facilities shall be provided for visitors, and incompatible land uses that do not help in the proper definition of these zones shall be eliminated. CHKL shall also endeavour, with the cooperation of the relevant local authorities, to ensure that developments outside the City that abut its boundary harmonise with and complement developments inside the boundary.

6.5 The key plan

211. The ten principal strategies are translated into more specific spatial strategies across the City. The two key diagrams that form part of this document illustrate the citywide strategies outlined in the previous section:
• Development Strategy Plan 1: Illustrates strategies relating to the City Centre, International Zones, Comprehensive Development Areas, Malay Reservation Areas, traditional kampungs and new villages, blighted areas and stable areas (refer Figure 6.2).
• Development Strategy Plan 2: llustrates strategies relating to the distribution of urban centres and facilities, green networks, road and rail networks, transit terminal nodes and the enhancement of the main City entry points (refer Figure 6.3).
212. To develop the spatial strategies into further detail as well as to provide greater focus, the City has been divided into six strategic zones whose boundaries align with major roads, rail and river corridors. Chapter 17: Strategic Zones describes in greater detail how the development strategies contained in this chapter as well as the sectoral
policies outlined in subsequent chapters are applied in respect of the Strategic Zones. The six zones are identified below:

• The City Centre (previously the CPA)
• Wangsa Maju - Maluri
• Sentul - Menjalara
• Damansara - Penchala
• Bukit Jalil - Seputeh
• Bandar Tun Razak - Sungai Besi
213. The basic planning parameters for each strategic zone for year 2020 are shown in Figure 6.4.
 

Figure 6.4: Population and employment, 2020