|| The development strategies for the
next 20 years are focused on the vision for Kuala Lumpur to become
a World-Class City. The strategies are also firmly grounded on the
direction and accomplishments of the KLSP 1984 that set the framework
for the structure and present growth patterns of Kuala Lumpur. The
physical shape of Kuala Lumpur, the distribution of land uses, the
new growth areas, infrastructure development especially roads and
rail systems are all directly attributable to the policies and strategies
set out in the KLSP 1984.
|| The population base of Kuala Lumpur
is set to increase from 1.4 million to 2.2 million over the next 20
years. Within the context of a city that is already well-developed
new strategies that optimize limited land resources need to be devised.
This Plan is part of the ongoing evolution of the City and the development
strategies set out here form the basis for the planned spatial development
of Kuala Lumpur as well as guiding the formation of sectoral policies
up to the year 2020.
|| The strategies are all encompassing
and cover every aspect of the City fabric from spatial and infrastructural
development to urban design and the less tangible qualities of the
City experience that shape and mould peoples perception of the
City and their place within it.
situation and issue
use 1984 - 2000
|| Table 6.1 indicates the existing land
uses by sector while Table 6.2, Table 6.3 and Table 6.4 indicate the
changes in land use between 1984 and 2000. The land use specialisation
index in these tables indicates the relative importance of a particular
land use in relation to the City as a whole for each of the planning
units designated in the KLSP 1984 (refer Figure 6.1).
Table 6.1: Land Use by Category, 2000
|| Residential land use increased from
3,822 hectares to 5,490 hectares between 1984 and 2000 and is the
largest land use component in the City. The majority of increases
in residential land use have been in the growth areas of Wangsa Maju
and Bandar Tun Razak, whereas Bukit Jalil has yet to establish its
residential base. Major established residential land use areas are
in Damansara, Bukit Indah, Setapak and Sentul.
|| However, residential land use in the
City Centre has declined significantly between 1984 and 2000 and now
accounts only for 26.4 percent of the total residential land use in
|| Decline in residential land
use in the City Centre; and
Slow growth of residential land use in Bukit Jalil.
Figure 6.1: Land use, 2000
Table 6.2: Land Use Change in Residential, Commercial and Industrial,
1984 - 2000
Table 6.3: Land Use Change in Institutional, Open Space Recreational
and Sports Facilities and Community Facilities, 1984 - 2000
Table 6.4: Land Use Change in Undeveloped Land, Squatters,
Infrastructure and Utilities, 1984 - 2000
Photo 6.1: ...residential land use in the City Centre has declined
|| Commercial land use growth has been
significant, increasing by 116.5 percent from 504 hectares to 1,092
hectares between 1984 and 2000. Although there has been some dispersal
of commercial land over Kuala Lumpur as a whole, the City Centre continues
to be by far the most important commercial location in Kuala Lumpur
accounting for 25.2 percent of the current total commercial land use.
|| The growth areas of Wangsa Maju and
Bandar Tun Razak have had respectable increase in commercial land
use which is in accordance with the objectives of the KLSP 1984. However,
Damansara has had moderate growth in commercial land use and Bukit
Jalil has only developed marginally. It is significant that of the
four growth areas, only Wangsa Maju has a specialisation index in
respect of commercial land use greater than 1.0. There has however,
been significant growth in commercial land use outside the designated
growth areas, in particular in Sentul, Bukit Indah, Jinjang and Seputeh.
|| Preponderance of commercial
land use in the City Centre; and
Commercial growth outside the designated growth areas.
|| The industrial component of land use
is relatively minor and has increased from 475 hectares in 1984 to
553 hectares in 2000. Most of the industrial land use is distributed
in Jinjang, Sentul, Bukit Indah and Maluri, which all grew during
the period. Industrial land use also grew in the new growth areas
of Wangsa Maju and Bandar Tun Razak and there has been a significant
increase in Bukit Jalil because of the Malaysia Technology Park.
||Many of the older industrial areas
are in a dilapidated state, for example, Chan Sow Lin and areas along
Jalan Klang Lama.
|| Dilapidated industrial areas.
|| Institutional land use which includes
government land and military reserve land has decreased by 12.5 percent
from 1,852 hectares in 1984 to 1,621 hectares in 2000 and currently
accounts for 6.7 percent of the total land use. Most of this land
is located in Sungai Besi Military Camp, Batu Cantonment, Sungai Besi
Royal Malaysian Air Force Base, Ministry of Defence Complex (MINDEF)
of Jalan Padang Tembak and the federal government complexes at Jalan
Duta and Mahameru Highway.
|| Future use of buildings
and lands formerly occupied by federal government offices.
space, recreational and sports facilities
|| Open space, recreational
and sports facilities land use includes city park, district park,
neighbourhood park, local park, local play area, sports complex, golf
course, polo field and as well as forest reserves. Total open space,
recreational and sport facilities land use has increased significantly
by 169.6 percent from 586 hectares in 1984 to 1,580 hectares in 2000,
although there has been a steady decline in public open space in the
City Centre largely because of conversion to other uses.
|| Major open spaces in the
City Centre comprise the public open spaces of Taman Tasik Perdana,
Bukit Nanas and the Kuala Lumpur City Centre Park (KLCC) totalling
301 hectares. Penchala contains the largest amount of open space,
recreational and sport facilities totalling 486 hectares comprising
mainly the Bukit Kiara Botanical Garden, Bukit Kiara Equestrian Park,
Kiara West Valley Park, Kuala Lumpur Golf and Country Club (KLGCC)
and Malaysia Civil Service Golf Club. The development of the National
Sports Complex, International Park, Botanical Park and Berjaya Golf
Course at Bukit Jalil, together with the district park of Taman Tasik
Permaisuri at Bandar Tun Razak have contributed to the significant
increase in open space in these growth areas.
|| However, open space, recreational
and sport facilities only represents 6.5 percent of total land use,
and the amount that is available as public open space is even less
when private open spaces such as golf courses are excluded.
|| Decline in open space
in the City Centre; and
Shortage of public open space.
Photo 6.2: Shortage of public open space.
|| Total land use for community
facilities, which includes land for cemeteries and public, educational
and religious facilities, stands at 1,382 hectares or 5.7 percent
of total land use. The four main tertiary institutions; Universiti
Malaya, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Kolej Tunku Abdul Rahman and
Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia occupy the major proportion of land
use in this category, together with several large tracts of centralized
cemetery areas, particularly in Seputeh, Bandar Tun Razak and the
|| Many of the local centres
in older residential areas have been developed without adequate provision
of community facilities such as community halls, markets, mosques,
cemeteries and libraries. Consequently, there are some difficulties
in finding sites for these facilities that are easily accessible to
the residential population.
|| Shortage of suitable
sites for community facilities.
|| Undeveloped land includes
agriculture, vacant land, former mining land, nurseries excluding
nurseries that are ancillary to major parks, shrub and bushes. The
total amount of undeveloped land now stands at 5,757 hectares or 23.8
percent of total land use. However, much of this land occurs in small
pockets that do not lend themselves to large-scale development.
|| Kuala Lumpur has almost
exhausted its supply of government owned green-field sites. The new
growth areas are almost fully developed with the remaining undeveloped
land mostly held under private ownership.
|| Shortage of undeveloped
|| Squatter settlements consist
of residential, commercial and industrial activities, presently occupying
approximately 571 hectares or 2.4 percent of total land use.
|| Issues relating to
squatters are covered in Chapter 12.
|| There has been a 5.7 percent
decline in this category of land use from 6,551 hectares to 6,177
hectares between 1984 and 2000. However, there has been an increase
in road reserve due to the major road building programmes implemented
as a consequence of the KLSP 1984. There has also been some increase
though not significant in the rail reserve due to the development
of Light Rapid Transit systems (LRT), the alignment of which mostly
running in the existing river, road and rail reserves.
|| A large portion of the
land that has been set aside as utility reserves, especially for electricity
transmission lines are under-utilised.
|| Under utilisation
of utility reserves.
Photo 6.3: Under utilisation of utility reserves.
|| Land available for future
requirements constitutes three types i.e. undeveloped land, under
developed and old dilapidated areas and land which has been given
approval for development. In the year 2000, potential land for development
has been estimated at about 5,004 hectares, comprising 2,440 hectares
of undeveloped land, 1,496 hectares of dilapidated areas identified
for redevelopment and 1,067 hectares of land which has been granted
approval for residential and commercial development.
|| Undeveloped land does not
have any established use or permanent structures and can be developed
immediately or in the near future. The under developed areas associated
with squatters and long houses, old and dilapidated development in
traditional and new villages or Malay Reservation Areas, have been
identified for redevelopment or renewal. Land belonging to the government
and unalienated land (state land) shall be reserved specifically for
public or government purposes.
|| From a total land area
at about 7,298 hectares which has been granted approval for development
for the period 1995 to 2000, only about 2,566 hectares were approved
for residential and commercial development. It is assumed that a significant
number of those granted approval, may not proceed at all as the supply
of building units coming on to the market will depend on a favourable
economic climate. CHKL will need to review the approved development
in the light of the development strategies. Special attention will
be paid to the approved commercial projects particularly those in
the City Centre. (refer Table 6.5).
Table 6.5: Potential Land for Development, 2000
of the achievement of the KLSP 1984 Development Strategy
|| The KLSP 1984 development
strategy was based on the concept of a hierarchy of urban centres
in order to achieve balanced growth across the City. Whilst the Central
Planning Area (the City Centre) would still maintain its role and
function as the business and commercial core of Kuala Lumpur, four
new growth areas were proposed namely Wangsa Maju, Bandar Tun Razak,
Bukit Jalil and Damansara to decentralize future housing and employment.
Each growth area was to be self-sufficient in terms of residential
population and employment opportunities. Planned population in the
range of 120,000 to 140,000 people were to be complemented by employment
of between 72,000 to 90,000 jobs. In parallel, local centres throughout
the City would be consolidated to service neighbourhood population.
It was envisaged that a direct benefit of this strategy would be the
increased use of public transport and reduction in private vehicle
usage in the City Centre. Large tracts of undeveloped land within
the City provided the opportunity to develop the new growth areas.
|| The present population
of Kuala Lumpur stands at 1.4 million although the KLSP 1984 had anticipated
a population of 2.2 million by the year 2000. Many people have chosen
to locate out of the City because of the availability of more affordable
housing in the other urban and suburban areas in the KLC. Employment
targets have also not been met as new employment opportunities have
arisen outside the City.
|| Population and employment
targets as projected in KLSP 1984 have not been achieved.
Planning Area (CPA)
|| The strategy to relieve
some of the pressures on the CPA by directing more growth to the new
growth areas has not been entirely successful. Commercial development
has continued to increase in the CPA while residential development
and open space have both declined significantly. Land for commercial
use has been mainly obtained due to the rezoning of residential land.
|| As a consequence of the
intensification of commercial development in the CPA and the outmigration
of the residential population, private vehicle commuting into the
CPA has increased, thus putting additional pressure on the road infrastructure.
|| Decline in residential
Increase in commercial component.
|| The strategy to accelerate
development of the growth areas of Wangsa Maju, Bandar Tun Razak,
Bukit Jalil and Damansara has been a qualified success. Three of these
growth areas namely Wangsa Maju, Bandar Tun Razak and Damansara have
reached maturity and, except for their district centres, have achieved
their planned targets. However, Bukit Jalil is in the early stages
of growth with respect to residential, cultural, hightech industrial
development and its district centre has yet to be properly developed.
None of the growth areas have fully achieved their intended status
of becoming self-sufficient townships.
|| Slow development
of district centres at Wangsa Maju and Bandar Tun Razak; and
Slow progress of development at Bukit Jalil.
|| Development strategies
for the remainder of Kuala Lumpur were directed at providing sufficient
land to accommodate mainly retail services and local level public
services for the immediate population. The strategies have met with
only limited success and some areas suffer from the under provision
of conveniently accessible utilities and
|| Existing centres have not
consolidated into neighbourhood or district service centres as development
has favoured new centres at the expense of upgrading older and established
|| Uneven distribution
of utilities and facilities; and
Development has favoured new areas at the expense of upgrading
older established residential areas.
|| The KLSP 1984 set out a
comprehensive transportation strategy aimed at promoting bus and rail
public transportation as well as providing a comprehensive road network
to disperse traffic away from the CPA. The LRT system, which was a
central element of the public transport strategy, has been successfully
completed and the road network has almost been completed virtually
unchanged from the original proposals.
|| However, the primary objective
of achieving a significant modal shift from private to public transportation
has not been achieved mainly because of the lack of integration between
the various modes of public transportation and between land use planning
and the rail-based public transport network.
|| Lack of integration
between the various modes of public transportation; and
Lack of integration between land use planning and rail-based
public transport network.
|| The development strategies
that have been developed are firmly founded on the principles and
successes of the KLSP 1984. It is essential that these principles
are maintained since much of the planned and implemented infrastructure
of the City; its roads, railways and other utilities are already in
|| Additional initiatives,
however, have been integrated into the Plan in order to make it more
effective and more responsive to the modern day needs of the City
and its inhabitants and to inject a new dynamism.
|| The strategy of balanced
growth across the City, a fundamental principle of the KLSP 1984,
will be maintained and the hierarchy of urban centres consisting of
the CPA and the four new growth areas will be retained and refined.
Measures shall be introduced to consolidate these centres and enhance
their amenity value to the community as well as to extend the functions
of urban centres and improve accessibility. To reinforce these measures,
a strong emphasis shall be placed on integrating development and public
|| Strategies are introduced
which are directed towards improving the living environment of the
City to a level commensurate with that available in other world-class
cities. These shall include the enhancement of the natural and built
environment and the quality of housing and working environment. Better
sports, recreational, entertainment, cultural and community facilities
shall be provided and complemented by an integrated transportation
system and high quality infrastructure.
|| New strategies shall also
be implemented to initiate projects that will stimulate the economic
life of the City and promote its image as an international commercial
and financial centre. Due to the lack of sizeable greenfield sites
available for development, these projects will build on the strengths
of existing developed areas or make use of dilapidated areas requiring
|| Ten development strategies
that will guide development policies for the next 20 years are summarised
Enhance the working, living and business environment of the
Designate and develop International Zones;
Designate and implement Comprehensive Development Areas (CDAs);
Encourage and facilitate the development of Malay Reservation
Areas, traditional kampungs and new villages;
Initiate and implement the redevelopment of blighted areas;
Ensure complete and integrated city linkages;
Provide priority and incentives to development in areas around
Ensure the functional distribution of centres and facilities;
Consolidate the development and enhance the environment of
stable areas; and
Consolidate the development and enhance the environment of
major entry points.
|| These strategies and their
underlying principles are described in greater detail below (refer
Figure 6.2 and Figure 6.3).
the working, living and business environment of the city centre
|| The City Centre, formerly
known as the Central Planning Area in the KLSP 1984 is the heart of
the City. The City Centre is the focus of local, national and international
attention and, for many, defines the image of Kuala Lumpur. The City
Centre epitomises the aspirations of its inhabitants and the vision
of Kuala Lumpur to be A World-Class City. This strategy aims to create
a complete living environment in the inner city that provides the
very best business and working environment together with a vibrant
commercial, financial and entertainment centres.
|| Particular emphasis shall
be placed on attracting more people to live in the City Centre. This
will reduce dependence on private transport, as more people will be
able to travel directly to work either on foot or by public transport.
A consequence of this strategy will be to create an increased liveliness
in the City Centre as more people populate its streets outside the
normal business period. Commercial and entertainment enterprises also
benefit from the increased residential population.
Photo 6.4: The strategy aims to create a complete living inner
city environment that provides the very best business and working
environment together with a vibrant commercial and entertainment centre.
|| In order not to exacerbate
problems of oversupply of commercial spaces in the City Centre as
well as to encourage greater dispersal of commercial spaces to the
other urban centres, the KLSP 1984 strategy of maintaining moderate
growth in the City Centre shall be continued. Land uses which are
no longer in keeping with the projected role of the City Centre as
an international commercial and financial centre shall be reviewed
and redesignated, thus releasing more land for commercial and residential
uses and also for compatible non-commercial use that can improve the
living environment of the City Centre.
|| A greater diversity of
economic activity shall be encouraged in the City Centre particularly
in the fields of tourism, healthcare and higher education. This diversification
will help to expand the Citys revenue base and reduce its susceptibility
to fluctuations in certain commercial sectors.
|| Centres of activities need
to be reintegrated and their connections enhanced. Pedestrian movement
in particular shall be given priority over private vehicular traffic
and comprehensive pedestrian networks shall be created affording comfortable
and convenient access to transportation nodes and activity centres
so as to reduce reliance on private transport.
|| Urban design guidelines
shall be developed and progressively implemented throughout the City
Centre which will ameliorate the living environment, create or regenerate
connections, both physical and experiential, and develop a unique
and discernible identity for the City. Streetscapes shall be harmonised
and plazas and pocket parks introduced to add texture and continuity
to the external environment of the City Centre.
Figure 6.2: Developmet Strategy Plan (1)
Figure 6.3: Developmet Strategy Plan (2)
and develop international zones
|| A world-class city must
be able to attract the highest calibre of expertise, both local and
overseas, to live as well as work in the City. Areas with activities
of international relevance and appeal, incorporating attractive living
environment shall be developed to provide high quality facilities
in terms of education, shopping, recreation and entertainment. The
quality of existing facilities and utilities shall be improved to
cater for the needs of expatriates and local residents.
|| In addition to being high
quality residential districts, the International Zones shall also
be developed as high-end employment centres specialising in ICT or
high skills technology. Commercial activities that cater to the needs
and tastes of the international market shall be encouraged and precincts
which specialise in international cuisine and culture shall be designated
|| Three areas have been designated
zones of international relevance and appeal namely Damansara, Ampang/U-Thant
and Bukit Jalil. Each zone will be able to provide its own uniquely
attractive living environment to appeal to the differing requirements
of international residents from the well established and exclusive
low-rise residences of Damansara to the new high-rise condominiums
of Bukit Jalil.
|| The eastern part of Damansara
and western part of Jalan Ampang/Jalan U-Thant shall complement the
activities of the City Centre, providing established high quality
living environments conveniently accessible to the central business
district. The southern zone at Bukit Jalil shall serve as a bridge
between the City and the MSC high tech areas to the south. The character
of each zone shall be developed so as to preserve and enhance their
own individual locational strengths and existing character and amenity.
|| The areas located between
KL Sentral and Telekom Tower, being part of Damansara - Penchala International
Zone, provide a wide range of facilities such as hotels, offices,
shopping centres and a regional transportation hub catering for international
and regional markets.
Photo 6.5: ...an attractive living environment shall be developed
to provide high quality facilities in terms of education, shopping,
recreation and entertainment.
and implement comprehensive development areas
|| As the premier city of
the nation, Kuala Lumpur will be the torchbearer for Malaysian industry
and entrepreneurship, and new initiatives shall be implemented that
reinforce the national development plans.
|| Two major Comprehensive
Development Areas (CDAs) have been identified which will showcase
and provide an impetus for the promotion and development of Malaysian
industry and commerce. The two CDAs are Kampong Bharu, the Malay Reservation
Area in the heart of the City Centre and the federal government complexes
at Jalan Duta to the west of the City Centre.
|| The CDAs shall be comprehensively
planned and developed as integrated mixed developments comprising
residential, commercial and industrial uses and will include utilities
and facilities that are commensurate with their residential populations.
Each of the CDAs shall also be served by transit terminals that will
be connected to key activities in the area and around which district
centres shall be developed.
and facilitate the development of Malay Reservation areas,
kampungs and new villages
|| While pursuing its vision
to be A World- Class City, it is essential that Kuala
Lumpur does not lose sight of its unique character and cultural heritage.
In particular, the Malay Reservation Areas (MRAs), traditional kampungs
and new villages, besides being of great historical importance in
the development of Kuala Lumpur and the nation, also
preserve a cultural continuum by maintaining traditional customs and
ways of life.
|| However, these areas were
created under circumstances that are no longer relevant to their present
urban context. The layout, pattern of land ownership and basic infrastructural
provision reflect their original land use as predominantly agricultural
smallholdings. Consequently, these areas are characterised by poor
infrastructure and a
deteriorating urban fabric that lags far behind the rest of the City.
In order to make sure that these areas can survive and contribute
to the life of the City, measures need to be taken to encourage and
facilitate residential and commercial developments.
|| Community facilities shall
be upgraded and basic infrastructure and utility networks improved.
New development in these areas shall reflect the values of their respective
communities. For example, in order to encourage continuity in the
residential communities, the concept of extended family housing shall
|| Innovative ways shall be
devised to encourage entrepreneurship and bring prosperity to the
areas. Commercial activities will be encouraged that emphasise the
development and promotion of cottage industries specialising in
traditional goods and handicrafts, in tandem with the development
of modern products, services and trades that benefit the communities.
|| Home stay and eco-tourism
in particular could well appeal to both domestic and international
tourists who wish to experience a taste of traditional ways of life.
CHKL shall encourage and assist in the development of tourist support
facilities as well as in tourist promotion both locally and internationally.
|| Buildings, areas and sites
that have a particular historical or cultural significance within
the context of their community shall be conserved. Similarly, new
development and streetscape projects incorporating architectural motifs
reflecting ethnic and cultural character shall be encouraged. Landscaping
shall also make use of indigenous
trees and plants that are especially evocative of Malaysias
|| These areas have traditionally
had a strong sense of identity and community. Efforts shall be made
to encourage collective development to be undertaken by the community
for mutual benefits. As these close-knit communities best understand
their own needs, it is desirable that the impetus for development
comes from them. CHKL shall facilitate the establishment of community
corporations to direct and coordinate development. Expertise and assistance
shall be provided to expedite the progress of development and infrastructural
and implement the redevelopment of blighted areas
|| Some areas of the City
due to neglect over a period of time, have become dilapidated. In
most cases, large-scale redevelopment would be difficult due to small
size sub-divided lots and multiple ownership. A longer term approach,
which aims at a gradual regeneration without essentially changing
the characteristics of these areas, is to be adopted.
|| CHKL shall prepare long-term
comprehensive development plans and guidelines which will be implemented
over the period. Improvement to basic infrastructure such as roads,
utilities and drainage shall be the initial priority and, as opportunities
present themselves, improvements to other amenities and community
facilities shall also be implemented. These measures will combine
to help regenerate dilapidated areas and encourage more private redevelopment
to take place within proper planning and urban design guidelines.
|| Some of these areas are
among the oldest parts of the City and contain buildings and sites
that are of historical and cultural significance. These shall be identified
in the comprehensive development plans and designated to be conservation
areas. Other areas that have clear redevelopment potential could provide
opportunities to cater for future urban needs that require public
intervention. These too shall be identified and designated as part
comprehensive development plans.
|| The guidelines will emphasise
the unique characteristics of each of the areas and ensure that development
will be compatible with the surrounding areas. The manner in which
the comprehensive development plans and guidelines
are implemented will ensure that the character and image of each area
is retained and enhanced.
|| A phased urban renewal
and development programme based on the comprehensive development plans
shall be devised and implemented for each of the identified areas.
complete and integrated city linkages
|| A world-class city of the
21st century must be one which is fully connected and integrated both
physically and perceptually.
|| Of prime importance is
physical connectivity in the form of a transportation system that
enables the efficient movement of people and goods within and around
the City. The existing road and rail transportation networks are comprehensive
and well established and need now to be integrated. The railway transport
network in the City comprises the Projek Usahasama Transit Ringan
Automatik (PUTRA) and Sistem Transit Aliran Ringan (STAR) light rapid
transit systems, Keretapi Tanah Melayu (KTM) commuter rail services
together with the Express Rail Link (ERL) and the monorail or People
Mover Rapid Transit (PRT) system. This comprehensive rail network
links the City Centre
to the major centres within Kuala Lumpur, other neighbouring urban
centres, Putrajaya and KLIA.
|| A comprehensive bus network
shall be developed which is flexible and user responsive and properly
integrated with the rail network. Pedestrian networks shall be established
with particular emphasis on the City Centre and other
areas that provide connections to major transit nodes and activity
centres. The increased convenience and flexibility of these measures
will help to redirect people towards increased usage of public transportation
with less reliance on private transportation.
the form of a transportation system that enables
the efficient movement of people and goods within and around the City.
|| Essential utilities such
as electricity, water, sewerage and drainage shall be upgraded and
comprehensively provided throughout the City. Together with the utility
companies and agencies, CHKL shall ensure that these utilities are
integrated and coordinated with one another in the future development
plans. ICT infrastructure, which has become an essential utility of
the 21st century, shall be incorporated into all new developments
in the City and upgrading of existing areas shall be encouraged.
|| Linking together green
spaces will encourage a diversity of flora and fauna to permeate into
the heart of the City as well as helping to improve air quality and
providing amenity to the citizens of Kuala Lumpur. The green network
initiated by the KLSP 1984 shall be fully realised, linking major
open spaces such as metropolitan parks, forestry reserves and lakes
together with other open spaces such as cemeteries and golf courses
by means of landscaped road, river, rail and utility reserve corridors.
|| Visual and perceptual linkages
shall also be developed so as to improve the imageability of the City
and to make it easier to orientate oneself within it. Views of the
City skyline shall be accentuated from various critical parts of the
City and especially at its gateway arrival points. Sites
shall also be identified for future planned landmark buildings to
further enhance the City skyline and facilitate orientation within
and around the City.
priority and incentives to development in areas around transit terminals
|| To reinforce the strategy
of providing complete and integrated transport linkages, more intensive
development near to transit terminals shall be actively promoted.
|| Mixed-use development incorporating
highdensity residential, high plot ratio commercial as well as community
and business facilities shall be encouraged, thus greatly reducing
reliance on private transportation by making accessibility flexible
and convenient. Bus services shall be closely integrated with rail
terminals and interchange facilities provided to facilitate fast,
convenient and efficient transport. Pedestrian and traffic linkages,
both within and
from outside these zones, shall be improved to provide more convenient
access to the transit terminals.
|| Park-and-ride facilities
shall be provided at interchanges on the perimeter of the City Centre,
encouraging more people to use public transportation to access the
City Centre. To further discourage private car usage in the City Centre,
measures shall be introduced to reduce car parking provision and increase
car parking charges. Other traffic
restraint measures such as restricted zones and area licensing schemes
shall be considered.
|| By locating major community
facilities near to major transit terminals, the effective catchment
populations can be greatly increased, consequently permitting the
consolidation and optimization of the usage of resources and facilities.
Community facilities that are relevant to this strategy would be community
centres, libraries and health facilities.
the functional distribution of urban centres and facilities
|| A prime concern of the
City must be that its urban centres and facilities are distributed
in such a way that they are easily accessible to the majority of its
population. To this end, a clear hierarchy of urban centres comprising
Centre, district centres and neighbourhood centres shall be defined.
Appropriate functions and facilities shall be determined for each
genre of centre according to their location, accessibility and catchment
area or population (refer Table 6.6). Existing centres shall be consolidated
and upgraded to meet the requirements of the local community.
|| District centres shall
be designated at or close to LRT or KTM rail stations and development
at these centres shall be intensified so that they benefit a greater
number of people. Improved public transport accessibility shall be
provided to existing district centres that do not have convenient
railbased terminals. The feasibility of extending the rail network
to serve these centres shall be examined. Neighbourhood centres shall,
as far as possible, be located at or close to LRT or KTM rail stations
and development at these centres shall also be intensified.
|| Community facilities shall
be distributed and integrated into the various types of urban centres
according to their intended catchment population. Larger and more
sophisticated facilities such as public libraries shall be distributed
to district centres that are well served by public transport. Other
smaller facilities such as local play areas and football
fields that need to be more closely associated with residential neighbourhoods
shall be distributed to the neighbourhood centres. Facilities that
shall be ubiquitously provided such as corner shops, local
play areas and neighbourhood watch booths should be associated with
the development and enhance the environment of stable areas
|| Much of Kuala Lumpur is
virtually fully developed. Three of the four growth areas identified
in the KLSP 1984; Wangsa Maju, Damansara and Bandar Tun Razak are
now well established while other areas of the City have also stabilised
and established their own distinct characters.
|| Some new highway projects
have adversely affected the configuration of certain areas. Pedestrian
and traffic patterns have become dislocated and communities disrupted
as a consequence. In some cases, this has led to a
physical and social degeneration of the areas. Plans shall be drawn
up to reconfigure these areas in order to help to regenerate and revitalise
Table 6.6: Hierarchy and Functions of Urban Centres
|| Elsewhere, development
has occurred without due regard for the adequate provision of community
facilities, utilities or, in some cases, infrastructure. A programme
will be implemented to ensure that all areas are equipped with basic
infrastructural needs and have access to proper, up-to-date and well-maintained
|| In order to maintain a
stable and sustainable city structure, a strategy shall be implemented
which builds on the existing strengths of stable developed areas and
improves their overall environment. This strategy will be one of minimal
intervention sufficient to consolidate the fabric of these areas in
order to improve cohesiveness and repair anomalies or shortcomings.
Existing land uses in these stable areas shall be maintained and incompatible
land uses eliminated. The intrinsic characteristics of stable areas
in terms of their geophysical and built environment will be analysed
and opportunities exploited to enhance their existing character and
Photo 6.7: ... builds on the existing strengths of stable developed
area and improves their overall environment.
the development and enhance the environment of major entry points
|| Kuala Lumpur is surrounded
on all sides by suburban development and townships that blur the definition
of its boundaries. This urban sprawl together with a lack of planning
consistency on either side of the City boundary has diluted its image
and often diminished or compromised Kuala Lumpurs planning intentions.
|| Gateway zones shall be
established at the primary and secondary entry points at the City
boundary. The primary gateway zones will be those where the city perimeter
intersects the major access roads into the City and from where views
of the City skyline and landmarks are visible. These zones shall be
emphasised so that they are consciously
perceived as the main points of arrival at the City and project the
image of Kuala Lumpur as the nations prime commercial and financial
centre as well as its high quality living and working environment.
At all gateway zones, there shall be a clear definition between elements
that are outside and those that are inside the city boundary.
|| Depending on the physical
characteristics and functions of each of the gateway zones, an appropriate
development character, scale and typology will be determined. In order
to heighten the sense of arrival, utilities and facilities shall be
provided for visitors, and incompatible land uses that do not help
in the proper definition of these zones shall be eliminated. CHKL
shall also endeavour, with the cooperation of the relevant local authorities,
to ensure that developments outside the City that abut its boundary
harmonise with and complement developments inside the boundary.
|| The ten principal strategies
are translated into more specific spatial strategies across the City.
The two key diagrams that form part of this document illustrate the
citywide strategies outlined in the previous section:
Development Strategy Plan 1: Illustrates strategies relating
to the City Centre, International Zones, Comprehensive Development
Areas, Malay Reservation Areas, traditional kampungs and new villages,
blighted areas and stable areas (refer Figure 6.2).
Development Strategy Plan 2: llustrates strategies relating
to the distribution of urban centres and facilities, green networks,
road and rail networks, transit terminal nodes and the enhancement
of the main City entry points (refer Figure 6.3).
|| To develop the spatial
strategies into further detail as well as to provide greater focus,
the City has been divided into six strategic zones whose boundaries
align with major roads, rail and river corridors. Chapter 17: Strategic
Zones describes in greater detail how the development strategies contained
in this chapter as well as the sectoral
policies outlined in subsequent chapters are applied in respect of
the Strategic Zones. The six zones are identified below:
The City Centre (previously the CPA)
Wangsa Maju - Maluri
Sentul - Menjalara
Damansara - Penchala
Bukit Jalil - Seputeh
Bandar Tun Razak - Sungai Besi
|| The basic planning parameters
for each strategic zone for year 2020 are shown in Figure 6.4.
Figure 6.4: Population and employment, 2020