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Kuala Lumpur Structure Plan 2020



1 Introduction

2 International and National Context of Growth

3 Vision and Goals of Kuala Lumpur

4 Economic Base and Population

5 Income and Quality of Life

6 Land Use and Development Strategy

7 Commerce

8 Tourism

9 Industry

10 Transportation

11 Infrastructure and Utilities

12 Housing

13 Community Facilities

14 Urban Design and Landscape

15 Environment

16 Special Areas
  16.1 Introduction
  16.2 Existing situation and issue
    16.2.1 Malay Reservation Areas
    16.2.2 Traditional kampungs
    16.2.3 New villages
  16.3 Objective
  16.4 Policy and proposal

17 Strategic Zone

18 Implementation



16.1 Policy and proposal

763. Special Areas are those that need special attention in terms of planning and development implementation. These areas have generally fallen behind in development and are associated with complex developmental problems, relative poverty, poor living conditions and inadequate infrastructure. Three types of areas are identified as Special Areas namely the Malay Reservation Areas (MRAs), traditional kampungs and new villages.
764. In its goal to create an efficient and equitable city structure and to enhance the city living environment, CHKL intends to bring these areas into the mainstream of development. It is imperative to encourage and facilitate the development of these areas so that they can help to achieve the vision of Kuala Lumpur to be A World-Class City.

16.2 Existing situation and issue
 16.2.1  Malay Reservation Areas
 a)  Background and legal status
 i.  Existing situation

765. The MRAs were created under the Malay Reservation Enactment of 1913 and the Land Enactment of 1987. The objective of the legislation was to ensure that the Malays would be able to own land, especially in urban areas, and a provision of the enactment is that an MRA may not, either through sale or lease, be transferred to non-Malays.
766. Table 16.1 Indicates the population, land area and density of the six MRAs in the City.

 ii.  Issue

767. The MRA is a familiar but complex subject that elicits considerable public interest, in particular the potential for developing Kampong Bharu into a modern commercial area because of its location within the City Centre. Although a few development plans have been prepared for the MRAs, to date, little progress has been achieved and the issue on slow development process of the MRAs remains unresolved.

• Underdevelopment of Malay Reservation Areas and traditional kampungs.

Table 16.1: Malay Reservation Areas - Area and Population, 2000
768. Legal restrictions imposed on property and the land ownership are the major factors that have reduced the financing potential and the marketability of these areas. Other constraints include the lack of capacity of individual owners to develop their properties and the absence of clear implementation programmes.

• Difficulty in initiating development in Malay Reservation Areas.

 b)  Physical environment
 i.  Existing situation

769. The MRAs were originally conceived and planned as traditional villages comprising individual dwelling units with associated lands sufficient to provide agricultural smallholdings. This explains the relatively small lot sizes in these areas. As the City has grown, the MRAs which were originally located on the outskirts of the City have become surrounded by urban development, none more so than Kampong Bharu which is now completely within the City Centre. Consequently, many of the original buildings and settlements are no longer compatible with their surroundings.

Photo 16.1: ... a few attempts to prepare development plans for the MRAs, to date, little has been achieved...
770. While Kampong Bharu, Kampong Datok Keramat and Selayang are well laid out with internal roads, utilities and community facilities, Gombak, Segambut and Kampong Sungai Penchala have retained their original agricultural sub-divisions and have consequently developed in a haphazard manner. In term of land usage, the MRAs are essentially residential although almost 40 percent of Segambut and Kampong Sungai Penchala, mainly the hilly areas, are still undeveloped or used for agricultural purposes.
771. Kampong Bharu and Kampong Datok Keramat are the most developed among the MRAs, followed by Gombak, Kampong Sungai Penchala and Segambut. In the case of Selayang, owing to its condition as ex-mining land, only a small portion has been developed. Generally, the changes that have taken place in the MRAs over the last 15 years have been minimal.

 ii.  Issue

772. Ad-hoc additions and alterations have been carried out to existing buildings. To cater for the growth of extended families, single dwellings have been converted to multiple dwelling units. In addition dwellings have been converted to incorporate shops, workshops and light industries which are incompatible with the residential component. Buildings have been also exanded to occupy the full extent of their sites leaving little or no room for setback area. These haphazard developments have resulted in substandard living conditions.

• Substandard living conditions due to adhoc individual development.
773. A consequence of the haphazard development of the MRAs has been to render the existing infrastructure obsolete and inadequate. The provision of community facilities has also been inadequate due to the shortage of available land.

• Substandard infrastructure nd inadequate community facilities.

 16.2.2  Traditional kampungs

774. The traditional kampungs experience the same environmental, economic and sociological problems and face the same difficulties in initiating development as the MRAs.
775. However traditional kampungs are not gazetted in the same way as the MRA and therefore, there are no restrictions on property ownership. Table 16.2 indicates the 12 traditional kampungs in the City.

Table 16.2: Traditional Kampungs - Area and Population, 2000

 16.2.3  New villages
 a)  Background and legal status
 i.  Existing situation

776. The new villages, which are predominantly populated by Chinese, were created as a result of the forced resettlement from rural areas of a section of the population by the British Colonial government in the early 1950s in an effort to curtail linkages with the banned Malayan Communist Party. There are four such settlements in Kuala Lumpur as shown in Table 16.3.

Table 16.3: New Villages - Area and Population, 2000

Photo 16.2: The traditional kampungs experience the same environmental, economic and sociological problems and face the same difficulties in initiating development as the MRAs.
777. The new villages were created solely for residential purposes and located outside of the City. The standard plot size is 50' x 80', with some instances of smaller plots of 30' x 80'. The areas are characterised by lack of development, poor housing and inferior standards of infrastructure, utilities and facilities. In the period 1992/93, land in the new villages was only issued with Temporary Occupation Licenses (TOL). This led to uncertainty regarding future prospects for the residents’ properties resulting in areas of dilapidation and ad-hoc development.
778. Land titles notably in mid-nineties, have been issued with 99-year lease and replacement of the old dwellings with more permanent construction is taking place. Nevertheless, the new villages still suffer the consequences of hurried resettlement based on the earlier military imperatives. Roads are narrow and in some areas terrain conditions are virtually ignored in the street pattern. There is also limited land available for new amenities. These conditions make it difficult to correct many of the inadequacies in the physical environment.

Photo 16.3: The rapid development surrounding the new villages has put great pressure on them to develop in tandem.

 ii.  Issue

  • Underdevelopment of new villages.

 b)  Physical environment
 i.  Existing situation

779. The rapid development surrounding the new villages has put great pressure on them to develop in tandem. However, when they were originally conceived and planned, insufficient provision was allowed for economic activity, which has resulted in illegal cottage industries being located in residential properties.

 ii.  Issue

  • Incompatible usage of land and building.
780. Illegal ad-hoc additions and alterations carried out without adherence to planning or building regulations have resulted in sub-standard housing conditions.

• Sub-standard housing conditions due to the illegal renovation and extension of dwelling units.
781. The growth in private vehicle ownership has placed increasing demands on the road infrastructure which cannot be met due to difficulties in carrying out road widening and other improvements.

• Insufficient road capacity to cope with additional vehicular traffic.
782. Flooding in some areas is commonplace due to deficiencies in the drainage systems including unlined drains.

• Frequent flooding due to inadequate drainage system.
783. These areas were solely designed for residential use without considering provision for utilities and community facilities. As the new village populations have grown so has the need for facilities such as markets, hawker centres, government clinics and sports facilities.

• Inadequate utilities and community facilities

16.3 Objective

784. In order to bring the MRAs, traditional kampungs and new villages into the mainstream of the City’s development so as to create an efficient and equitable city structure and an image consistent with the vision of Kuala Lumpur as A World-Class City, CHKL aims to:

• rationalise and optimise the use of land within the Malay Reservations Areas, traditional kampungs and new villages; and

• promote Bumiputera participation in the City’s urban economy through the development of the Malay Reservation
Areas and traditional kampungs.
785. In order to enhance the city living environment in the MRAs, traditional kampungs and new villages, CHKL aims to:

• improve the quality of housing and housing environment;

• provide a clean and pleasant living environment supported by efficient infrastructure, facilities and services;

• ensure they are provided with adequate high quality community facilities.

16.4 Policy and proposal
 a)  Institutional framework

786. The difficulties in development process faced by the Special Areas cannot be resolved by merely proposing specific developments or attempting to resolve specific issues. These development difficulties related to legal, physical and financial, require effective coordination and promotion which need to be undertaken by a dedicated body.
787. This dedicated body is responsible for the planning, development and management of Malay Reservation Areas and traditional kampungs. This body shall coordinate public and private sectors’ initiatives.

SA 1: CHKL shall set up a dedicated body to initiate and co-ordinate the planning, development and management of Malay Reservation Areas and traditional kampungs.
788. The creation of Development Corporations involving landowners and residents of new villages, to carry out improvements to infrastructure and facilities as well as to initiate and manage new development, will be encouraged.

SA 2: CHKL shall promote the setting up of community corporations by appropriate groups, involving landowners and residents, to develop the new villages.

 b)  Physical development

789. Development constraints are interlinked and most specific issues cannot be resolved in isolation. For example, the upgrading of infrastructure to improve living conditions is constrained by the difficulty of enlarging utility reserves because of the small lot sizes. It follows that the improvement of conditions in the MRAs, traditional kampungs and new villages cannot be achieved by piecemeal development but only through the implementation of comprehensive plans for redevelopment.
790. Comprehensive development plans setting out the overall framework for development must be prepared. Of immediate concern will be the improvement of living standards through the upgrading of infrastructure and provision of community facilities.

SA 3: CHKL shall implement comprehensive development plans for Malay Reservation Areas, traditional kampungs and new villages.
SA 4: CHKL shall implement measures to accelerate development and upgrade living standards in Malay Reservation Areas, traditional kampungs and new villages.