|| Comprehensive and efficient transportation
system networks with good inter and intra city linkages are essential
enabling factors to ensure Kuala Lumpurs position as an international
commercial and financial centre.
|| For the residents of Kuala Lumpur,
the City must be able to provide an efficient and equitable city structure
that, as far as possible, allows all members of the community equal
accessibility to all areas and facilities so that everyone may enjoy
the maximum benefits of city living.
|| The basic structure is now in place
with a comprehensive road and rail network that has been built up
since 1984, and the programme now for Kuala Lumpur will be to develop,
refine and integrate this transportation system to serve the City
and its population until 2020. In this respect, CHKL shall assist
in the implementation of a fully integrated transportation system.
situation and issue
|| Between 1985 and 1997, the modal share
of public transport decreased from 34.3 percent to 19.7 percent. This
represents a major shift away from public transport and in particular
bus transport, which is partly attributable to higher personal affluence
leading to an increase in car ownership and also to deficiencies in
the bus services. The increasing reliance on private transportation,
in particular private cars, has created considerable pressure on the
road network which has contributed to the problems of traffic congestion.
|| Low public transport modal share
resulting in high demand on road infrastructure and traffic congestion.
|| Increased affluence and out migration
from Kuala Lumpur have both contributed to the present traffic congestion
problems in the City Centre. Between 1980 and 1997, the population
of Kuala Lumpur maintained an annual growth rate of 1.1 percent while
from 1985 to 1997 person trips by cars increased at an average annual
growth rate of 4.2 percent in the Klang Valley Region.
|| It is also significant that, although
the population of the City Centre accounts for only 3.3 percent of
total population of the Klang Valley Region, approximately 19 percent
of the 8.3 million person trips made daily within the Klang Valley
Region are trips generated in the City Centre.
|| The high travel demand has been met
in large part by private transportation in particular, private cars.
As a consequence, there has been congestion and a serious deterioration
of travel speed on major roads in many parts of Kuala Lumpur, especially
in the City Centre as well as in the east and south, due to major
traffic routes operating at or above capacity during peak hours. Low
vehicle occupancy has further aggravated the problem.
|| High travel demand to and from
the City Centre during peak hours.
|| Traffic management measures are aimed
at optimizing the existing infrastructure to improve flow capacities
and to be more responsive to traffic demand at different times of
|| Various measures have been successfully
implemented in Kuala Lumpur. The principal means of traffic control
in the City presently comprises a computer based area traffic signal
coordination system (SCATS/ITACA) that operates 130 intersections,
supplemented by the traffic police during peak hours. Extension of
the existing traffic control system, together with an upgrading of
the systems capability, is currently being implemented in phases.
|| Other traffic control measures which
contribute to traffic management in Kuala Lumpur include the one-way
street system, reversible lanes to increase lane capacity during morning
peak hours, exclusive bus/taxi lanes, penalties for illegal on-street
parking and regulations controlling heavy vehicle entry into the City
Centre during peak hours.
|| Additional measures that relate to
road safety are through the use of traffic signage, barriers, pavement
line marking and pedestrian bridges. Driver awareness campaigns and
strict provisions for the issuance of driving licenses are also relevant
contributions to effective traffic management.
|| Although traffic management measures
have done much to ease traffic flows particularly in the City Centre,
they cannot continue to do so indefinitely if traffic demand on the
roads continues to grow.
Traffic management measures alone cannot effectively increase
existing road capacity levels.
|| The institutional structure responsible
for urban transportation within Malaysia and, more specifically, Kuala
Lumpur is divided between federal departments and City Hall Kuala
Lumpur (CHKL) (refer to Table 10.1).
|| The CHKL Urban Transport Department
is entrusted with wide ranging coordination and administrative functions
for the planning of urban transport in an effective manner. The Federal
Government deals more with nationwide transportation plans, policy
guidelines and matters concerning overall transport administration
|| Private sector involvement in the
provision of transport infrastructure has expanded from the original
role of bus and taxi transport operations to toll road construction
and the implementation, operation and maintenance of the commuter,
light rapid transit (LRT) and people mover rapid transit (PRT) systems.
Table 10.1: Urban Transportation Responsibilities - Federal
and Local Government Departments
|| There is a degree of overlap and duplication
in the functions of the various agencies responsible for Kuala Lumpurs
transportation network which has led, in some instances, to conflicting
policies or programmes. This has made it more difficult to formulate
policies for public and private transportation which are consistent.
Inadequate coordination of policies concerning public transport
and public/ private transport modes.
- Based public transport
|| Rail services have become a significant
factor in public transport in Kuala Lumpur since the opening of the
Light Rail Transit (LRT) System 1, Sistem Transit Aliran Ringan Sdn
Bhd (STAR) in 1996 and subsequently the LRT System II or Projek Usaha
Sama Transit Ringan Automatik (PUTRA) in 1998. Together they provide
approximately 50 kilometres of rail network with 40 stations. In addition
to the LRT, the People Mover Rapid Transit (PRT), a monorail system
recently completed, serves major office and other commercial developments
within the City Centre. The monorails 10-kilometre route with
10 stations act as a downtown people mover operating on an elevated
|| The Express Rail Link (ERL), a dedicated
high-speed rail system, connects KL Sentral and Kuala Lumpur International
Airport (KLIA). The ERL terminus at KL Sentral functions as a city
airport terminal for KLIA. At KL Sentral station, an intermodal facility
is being provided with KTM Commuter, PRT and LRT System II, where
users can transfer between the various modes to their desired destinations.
|| The upgrading of KTMB rail services
and the operation of the KTM commuter added about 137 kilometres of
rail services between Rawang - Seremban and between Sentul - Port
Klang passing through 39 stations and halts. This service allows commuters
to capture a significant portion of the long distance daily travel
needs between Kuala Lumpur and the suburbs.
Photo 10.1: Rail services have become a significant factor
in public transport in Kuala Lumpur...
|| LRT and commuter rail usage has been
encouraging. However, optimal usage has still to be achieved due to:
inadequate interchange facilities at stations including car
and motor cycle parking and pedestrian linkages;
lack of integration between rail-based stations; and
poor support services including inadequate feeder bus frequency
and service coverage.
|| Figure 10.1 indicates the relative
accessibility of bus and rail-based public transport. It is clear
that rail-based public transport services are far less accessible
than bus services and, consequently, their ability to service patrons
in a single trip from origin to destination is very limited. The 2-kilometre
radius coverage of the feeder buses that operate from stations is
not enough to ensure sufficient accessibility.
Poor accessibility to rail-based public transport.
Figure 10.1: Rail and Bus Accessibility
|| At present there are four major private
companies operating about 15,000 bus trips per day. Each company operates
about 30 routes, most of which are radial in nature, terminating at
the City Centre.
|| Improvements to the bus network are
being facilitated by CHKL providing exclusive bus and taxi lanes in
the City Centre and comfortable stop facilities. Together these improvements
are intended to offer passengers a quick, comfortable and convenient
|| Despite the improvements to the bus
system and road infrastructure, bus utilisation is low, primarily
as a consequence of route duplication, unreliable service frequency,
overcrowding during peak hours and the poor condition of buses.
Under utilisation of bus services; and
Unreliable and poor quality of services.
Photo 10.2: Improvements to the bus network are being facilitated
by CHKL providing exclusive bus/taxi lanes in the City Centre and
comfortable shelter/stop facilities.
|| The existing main bus terminal is
at Puduraya in the City Centre. The majority of inter city buses and
coaches terminate there, thus adding to traffic congestion and consequently,
longer journey times for passengers.
Central location of main bus terminal contributing to traffic
|| Taxis are an important element of
the public transport system offering a convenient form of alternative
transport particularly outside peak hours. There are approximately
24,721 taxicabs licensed in Kuala Lumpur, run by 4,183 operators.
A traffic classification survey carried out by Japan International
Coorperation Agency (JICA) in 1997 indicated that taxis constituted
4 to 6 percent of the total number of vehicles passing through the
|| There is no shortage of taxis but
availability is frequently a problem at peak periods and during bad
Unreliable taxi services.
|| Based on the Road Transport Department
report, the ratio of registered cars and motorcycles in Kuala Lumpur
was 985.7 per 1,000 population in 2000. However, based on the Home
Interview Survey carried out by JICA in 1998 the estimated possession
ratio in vehicles represents approximately 211 cars per 1,000 population
and 164 motorcycles per 1,000 population. Private cars account for
56.6 percent of all motorised trips in Kuala Lumpur.
|| CHKL through the town planning approval
process controls the number of car and motorcycle parking spaces to
be provided for new development. However, at present parking charges
are subjected to market forces and are not regulated.
|| In order to alleviate traffic congestion,
CHKL has successfully implemented roadside parking restrictions on
all major arterial roads in the builtup areas.
|| There are approximately 65,206 car
parking spaces in the City Centre (refer to Figure 10.2). Office buildings
record the highest utilisation of spaces averaging 71.0 percent, followed
by retail premises (49.0 percent average) and mixed-use (47.0 percent
average). Generally, car-parking provision in the City Centre is more
Parking charges in the City Centre favour regular long-term parking
with many car park operators offering cheap seasonal parking tickets.
This, together with the flexibility afforded by private transport,
encourages commuters to continue to use private transport into the
The low cost of long-term parking in the City Centre together
with the abundance of parking spaces and the flexibility of movement
associated with car transport, has made car transport the preferred
means of travel in the City.
Outside the City Centre there is a shortage of car parking spaces
in areas close to public transport and also in shop lot development
where there are no multi-storey or underground car parks.
Shortages of parking spaces outside the City Centre in locations
which have reasonable access to public transport and in shop lot
|| Motorcycles account for approximately
23 percent of all road users in Kuala Lumpur. Principally used by
the young and lower income groups, they provide a fast, flexible and
economical means of transportation around the City.
|| About 52 percent of the total numbers
of fatal and serious accidents in Kuala Lumpur involve motorcycles.
Motorcycles are the major source of urban air and noise pollution.
Noise emission from motorcycles in the City Centre exceeds permissible
noise limits (Malaysia Environmental Quality Report 1996, DOE).
|| The accident rate involving
motorcycles is higher than for all other forms of transport; and
Motorcycles contribute significantly to noise and air pollution.
|| Under the privatization policy, the
road building programme for the Klang Valley set out in the KLSP 1984,
which comprised 23 new roads and 21 major road improvement projects,
has mostly been completed together with some additional toll highways.
The road network now in place has succeeded in its primary purposes
of eliminating through traffic from the City Centre, reducing congestion
on minor roads and efficiently dispersing traffic from the City Centre.
|| In addition, there are
a number of road building projects already under way, and some for
which a concession agreement has already been signed, or for which
approval in principle has been given (refer to Table 10.2).
|| A pedestrian network is progressively
being implemented in the City Centre. This will facilitate pedestrian
and non-motorised vehicle movement at activity centres, connect transit
stations and terminals for convenient inter-modal transfer, provide
pedestrian malls and act as traffic restraint measures. The network
will also help increase the
utilisation of public transportation and reduce short vehicle trips.
|| The existing situation and issues
relating to pedestrian movement are outlined in Chapter 14: Urban
Design and Landscape.
|| Cycle ways have, for some time, been
incorporated into new housing estates and recreational areas. Despite
the relatively flat terrain of Kuala Lumpur, cycling as a convenient
means of transport is under utilised partly due to local climatic
conditions. There are also, however, some shortcomings in the existing
cycle way network which contribute to the under utilisation of bicycles.
Photo 10.4: ...pedestrian and non-motorised vehicle movement
at activity centres, connect transit stations and terminals for convenient
|| Opportunities exist for bicycle transport
in providing connections to public transport services and short distance
local travel. Other cities have utilised their roads, rail and open
space corridors to create a comprehensive local area cycle way network.
Cycle ways in housing estates suffer from under usage, misuse
(illegal parking) and poor maintenance; and
Lack of continuity in the cycle way networks.
|| Lorry vehicular trip production is
mainly focused in the industrial areas peripheral to the City Centre.
Heavy lorry flows are concentrated more in external zones to the south
and passing through the region on a north-south axis.
|| Within Kuala Lumpur there is some
heavy goods vehicle (HGV) movement although this is prohibited during
the morning and evening peak hours.
|| There are areas in the north and south
of the City where the illegal parking of HGVs, construction vehicles
and coaches in residential areas causes inconvenience to the residents.
Illegal parking of heavy goods vehicles and construction vehicles
in residential and commercial areas due to the lack of proper parking
facilities and consequent enforcement difficulties.
|| To create an efficient and equitable
city structure for Kuala Lumpur, CHKL aims to:
provide a comprehensive and integrated transportation system
that caters for the needs of inter and intra city travel;
reverse the decline in public transport usage and to achieve
a targeted public: private transport modal split of 60:40 by the year
optimise the road and rail transportation infrastructure so
that it operates at its full capacity and maximum efficiency;
ensure that the overall configuration of land use is integrated
with road and public transportation networks to optimise the development
of land; and
ensure that all areas within the City enjoy the same high quality
and standard of provision of public transport services.
|| To enhance the city living environment,
CHKL aims to:
create a city that is highly accessible for all its occupants
and users, in particular, one that is pedestrian and handicapped friendly.
|| If current trends continue, motorised
trips by car in 2020 are expected to be almost double those of 1997.
Increasing road capacity by constructing new roads and widening existing
roads do not, in the long run, resolve the situation but simply postpone
the problem until more roads need to be built. Most areas in the City,
especially the City Centre, are now built up and land acquisition
for road development is becoming increasingly difficult and expensive.
|| CHKL is, therefore, moving towards
a Travel Demand Management strategy that aims to redirect movement
patterns from private to public transport by integrating transport
modes, extending and promoting public transport and discouraging the
use of private transport. The public transport system in the City
must be competitive, convenient, userfriendly and accessible to all
||CHKL shall determine Travel
Demand Management measures to increase public transport usage
and liase with the relevant authorities to ensure that these
measures are implemented.
||CHKL shall implement a private
vehicle restraint programme to improve traffic circulation in
the City Centre by discouraging car travel to and from the City
Centre during peak hours and enforcing measures to limit access
to certain parts of the City.
|| In order to optimise the traffic management
system now in place, the system needs to be upgraded to one that can
monitor and control all aspects of traffic movement in the City.
||CHKL shall enhance the traffic
|| A principal objective of the transportation
sector is the integration of land use with transportation and the
development of a Transit Oriented Development Strategy. This strategy,
which is detailed in Chapter 6: Land Use and Development Strategies,
will promote intensified development along the rail network. Any planned
extension to the rail network must, therefore, complement this policy
by ensuring that rail stations serve designated urban centres.
||CHKL shall establish a Transit
Planning Zone to facilitate intensification of transit oriented
residential, commercial and mixeduse development around rail
Photo 10.5: ...will promote intensified development along the
|| The increased emphasis and capital
expenditure on public transport requires complementary coordination
between government departments and other related agencies. CHKL shall
take pro-active measures in ensuring the implementation of government
policy in relation to the public transport administration.
||CHKL shall assist to coordinate
the planning, development and operation of public transport
and related private transport matters.
|| Consistent with the governments
policy, emphasis will be on providing an integrated, flexible, wide
ranging and efficient public transport system orientated towards passenger
accessibility and convenience. Central to this approach is the integration
of public transport modes with each other and with private transport
so that, with streamlined inter-modal transfer facilities and integrated
ticketing, passenger trips become as convenient and seamless as possible.
|| In order to avoid traffic congestion
occurring on local streets, major bus and rail park-and-ride interchange
facilities will be located at the points of intersection of the rail
stations and major roads. The recommended locations of these interchanges
are shown in Figure 10.3.
||CHKL shall assist in the implementation
of a fully integrated transportation system in line with the
|| The rail network is the most efficient
means of providing high capacity rapid public transport. Medium and
long-term plans for the introduction of different types of rail systems
such as tram and the expansion of the rail network to outlying areas
should be regularly examined in every 10 years for their feasibility.
|| The major growth areas in Kuala Lumpur
are now well linked to the City Centre except those on the east-west
axis. The feasibility of a new Damansara - Cheras LRT line linking
growth areas in the east and west shall be investigated together with
new rail links to serve district centres, comprehensive development
areas and growth areas.
Photo 10.6: ...the integration of public transport modes...
|| It is also proposed that the STAR
LRT line from Sentul Timur station be extended northward towards Taman
Wahyu and westward towards Kepong and another line be extended from
Sri Petaling station westward to serve the area around Bukit Jalil.
|| A further extension to the LRT is
proposed from KL Sentral station to the proposed district centre at
Bukit Indah. These five future lines will add a further 41.9 kilometres
to the existing network.
||CHKL shall assist in the preparation
of feasibility studies for future extensions to the rail network
and coordinate with the relevant authorities with regard to
|| Buses will remain the principal form
of public transport especially outside the City Centre for the foreseeable
future. In order to encourage greater usage of bus services, it is
essential that measures be undertaken to improve their reliability,
coverage, comfort and convenience.
||CHKL shall assist in determining
measures to improve bus services with maximum penetration into
growth areas and all major employment and retail centres and
coordinate with the relevant agencies and operators.
Figure 10.3 : Integrated rail based public transport system,
|| CHKL shall also implement measures
to create a network of bus terminals on the periphery of Kuala Lumpur
for buses and coaches serving separate inter-regional and intra-regional
services. These terminals will be integrated with the rail system
via multi-modal interchanges to enable easy access to the City Centre
and other areas of the City. Inter-regional terminals shall be located
at Gombak (to serve the east), Bandar Tasik Selatan (to serve the
south), Jalan Ipoh (to serve the north) and the station at CDA Jalan
Duta (to serve the west). Hentian Putra, Pasarama Kota and Plaza Rakyat
terminals will serve as the intra-regional terminals. Terminals to
cater for local services shall be developed at various suitable locations
in the City (refer to Figure 10.4).
||CHKL shall implement a bus
terminal network for inter-regional, intraregional and local
|| By controlling the supply and distribution
of car parking facilities in Kuala Lumpur, CHKL can help to reinforce
public transport and Travel Demand Management objectives by making
private transport a less attractive proposition than public transport,
especially within the City Centre. This can further be reinforced
by controlling the cost of car parking in different parts of the City.
Photo 10.7: CHKL shall regulate the supply of parking facilities.
||CHKL shall regulate the supply
of parking facilities.
|| In view of the vital role that taxis
play in the business and commercial life of the City, it is important
that significant improvements are made to the levels of service and
reliability. In achieving better overall public transport services,
taxis need to be expanded with innovative services into new markets.
||CHKL shall assist in improving
the reliability and availability of taxi services in coordination
with the relevant agencies.
|| As Kuala Lumpur looks to a cleaner
and safer living environment, the role of the motorcycle in transportation
must be examined. A large percentage of motorcycle users are those
that would benefit from a more comprehensive public transportation
system. In a long term, measures to encourage motorcycle users to
make greater use of public transport and limit motorcycle usage in
the City Centre to only essential users should be looked into.
|| In the short and medium term, measures
to improve safety for motorcycle users shall be implemented and more
rigorous enforcement of existing regulations shall be exercised.
||CHKL shall assist and coordinate
with the relevant authorities in the improvement of road infrastructure
to enhance safety measures for motorcycle users.
Figure 10.4 : Location of bus terminals, 2000
|| The major road systems currently in
place together with those which are under construction or committed
are considered sufficient to satisfy Kuala Lumpurs needs to
the year 2020. However, two new roads are proposed that are principally
intended to improve traffic flow in and out from the City Centre.
In view of the difficulty of increasing existing road capacities in
the City Centre and the high cost associated with obtaining new corridors,
an underground expressway is proposed beneath Jalan Raja Chulan connecting
to the Middle Ring Road in the east.
|| An inner city by-pass road is also
proposed, part of which will be underground, to provide a direct link
from Jalan Syed Putra in the south of the City Centre to Jalan Dang
Wangi (refer to Figure 10.5 and Table 10.3).
||CHKL shall determine a road
development programme and coordinate with the relevant authorities
|| In future the requirement, if any,
for new roads must be examined in the context of CHKLs general
transportation policies. However, any new roads that may be deemed
necessary should support CHKLs policies to promote public transportation
by making provision for high-occupancy vehicles and/or trunk bus routes.
The reserves of these roads should be clearly demarcated to prevent
urban encroachment on the right of way.
|| Privatization bids on arterial roads
must also conform to the network proposed in the structure plan and
local plans and not be conceived independently.
||CHKL shall ensure that proposed
and committed major roads are considered in the broader context
of public transport services, freight movement and impact upon
the community and environment.
Photo 10.8: ... a road network improvement programme must be
carried out to upgrade existing roads to arterial roads, build missing
linkages and improve interchanges.
to the Existing Road Network
|| In order to complete the existing
road network, increase its capacity and eradicate bottlenecks, a road
network improvement programme must be carried out to upgrade existing
roads to arterial roads, build missing linkages and improve interchanges
(refer to Figure 10.5 and Table 10.3).
||CHKL shall determine a road improvement
programme and coordinate with the relevant authorities regarding
|| In order to be able to better monitor
and optimise usage of the existing road system, a review of the actual
status of all existing roads and the road hierarchy system should
Figure 10.5 : Major road network, 2000
Table 10.3: New Roads Construction and Improvements to Existing
Photo 10.9: ...review of the actual status of all existing
roads and the road hierarchy system.
||CHKL shall implement an improved
road hierarchy classification system.
|| Policies regarding pedestrianisation
are covered in Chapter 14: Urban Design and Landscape.
|| A pedestrian friendly environment
will be created throughout the City with particular emphasis on the
City Centre and other urban centres. Pedestrian networks in the City
Centre will emphasise on linking public transport facilities and will
incorporate urban design elements. A proposed parkland PRT loop passing
through the parkland sector in the western part of the City Centre
shall connect to the existing PRT line and complement the pedestrian
|| Special attention is to be given to
areas around main transport interchanges to ensure that they incorporate
facilities to make them fully accessible to the aged and handicapped.
||CHKL shall develop specific guidelines
and standards to provide for the needs of the aged and handicapped
to be applied to pedestrian networks, new public transport terminuses
and stations as well as multi-modal interchanges.
|| Bicycles can and should continue to
be encouraged as a healthy form of exercise and as an alternative
means of private transportation for short journeys in residential
and recreational areas.
Photo 10.10: Adequate lorry parks for the benefit of HGV owners
residing in the City....
||CHKL shall improve the cycle
way network and promote cycling activities in residential and
|| Adequate lorry parks for the benefit
of HGV owners residing in the City shall be provided so that they
do not have to resort to illegally parking in commercial or residential
areas. These lorry parks will also include parking facilities for
coaches and construction vehicles.
||CHKL shall provide adequate parking
and other ancillary facilities for heavy
goods vehicles, coaches and construction vehicles in appropriate
locations at the City perimeter.
public transportation system
|| The complete rail network to the year
2020 including integrated park-and-ride stations and multimodal interchanges
are indicated in Figure 10.3.
|| Ultimately, Kuala Lumpur still needs
a comprehensive road network in order to provide efficient and convenient
road travel. The requirements for new roads and improvement to existing
roads are indicated in Figure 10.5 and
summarised in Table 10.3.